MicroMedicine http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/mmed <p><strong>ISSN 2449-8947</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 8" href="http://www.nauka.gov.pl/g2/oryginal/2016_12/c5c2fcb0c283a9eb3d1081020fd3178c.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 8</a></strong><br><strong><a title="ICV: 86.09" href="http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/MicroMedicine,p24783445,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2017: 86.09</a></strong></p> en-US mmed@tmkarpinski.lh.pl (Joanna Bródka) mmed@tmkarpinski.lh.pl (Joanna Bródka) Thu, 07 Feb 2019 21:53:27 +0100 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Microbial contamination of traditional ice creams in Rafsanjan, Iran http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/mmed/article/view/143 <p>Ice cream is a frozen dairy product that is made of suitable milk, sugar and flavoring agents. It easily contaminated and causes food poisoning. Since it harbors many bacterial pathogens, its microbial quality has always been crucially important to public health. The aim of this study, conducted to screen some selected national and international brands of ice cream include <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> in Rafsanjan city, Iran. All producing and distributing of traditional ice creams were screened. The samples were collected in hygienic conditions. 40 samples of traditional ice creams were obtained randomly from the retail stores. All the samples were analyzed for microbial contaminations such as <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> according to the Iran national standard No. 2406. The results showed that 30 Samples (75%) with Enterobacteriaceae, 6 cases (15%) with <em>Escherichia coli</em> and 2 cases (5%) with <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> were contaminated and thus contamination of traditional ice creams was notable. However, pasteurization of ice-cream raw materials with sufficient heat, regarding health principles in several stages of producing and preparing health materials and controlling ice cream producing and distributing centers are necessary to decrease contamination.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2574170">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2574170</a></strong></p> Ozra Hosseini-Naveh, Ashraf Kariminik, Arezou Azizi, Esmat Khodadadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/mmed/article/view/143 Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Assessment of bacteriological quality of drinking water in Belagavi City, India http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/mmed/article/view/132 <p>With the growing population and industrialization, the potability of drinking water has been decreased due to pollution and improper sanitization. In this context the present study was aimed to check the potability of drinking water by Multiple Tube method and Membrane Filter technique and to identify bacteria from Membrane Filter technique. 100 samples from 10 different wards of Belagavi City were collected. Bacteriological analysis was done for the presence of fecal coliforms, fecal Streptococci, <em>Salmonella</em> and <em>Shigella</em> by presumptive coliform test and multiple tube method (MPN) and membrane filter (MF) techniques were used for estimation of coliform bacteria. Twelve out of 100 samples were found to be unsatisfactory for drinking purpose. A total of five different strains were isolated from 100 samples. Genera isolated were <em>Corynebacterium</em> species, Micrococci, Gram positive Bacilli, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Citrobacter freundii</em>. 88% of the sources were hygienic for drinking purposes and for the rest of the sources, proper measure should be taken to maintain sanitary of the drinking water by regular check on the equipment, maintaining structural faults and proper disinfection of equipments.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2796152">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2796152</a></strong></p> Ved Prakash Mishra, Suraj Twanabasu, Susan Kusma, Sumati A. Hogade ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/mmed/article/view/132 Mon, 13 May 2019 21:44:07 +0200 The influence of interleukin-6 on the course of ovarian cancer http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/mmed/article/view/52 <p>In Poland, in 2015, according to the National Cancer Registry (NCR), cancer was diagnosed among 163 281 people, including 81 632 women and 81 649 men. Ovarian cancer in 2015 affected 3% of women who had cancer. Interleukin 6 is a glycoprotein that consists of 212 amino acids. The gene encoding interleukin 6 is located on chromosome 7 adjacent to the gene LOC541472 and RSP26P32 in 7p15.3. The sources of interleukin 6 include tumor cells and macrophages that are secreted by bone marrow cells as a result of a process in which monoblasts are transformed into the promonocyte in the bone marrow, and the next monocytes into the macrophage in the blood. Scientific evidence points to an increase of IL-6 in blood by about 10 pg/ml in relations to healthy people and the increased expression of the encoding gene IL-6 by 2.2 in cancer tissue in relation to healthy tissue. The authors of the studies carried out so far do not indicate a connection between the concentration of IL-6 in the blood and the size of the tumor according to the FIGO classification, and predict a shorter survival time for patients with an increased level of IL-6. Mutation in the encoding gene IL-6 174 G&gt;C according to the previously collected research results does not affect the patients’ expected life expectancy. There are no research results that would indicate that the mutation in the IL-6 gene affects its concentration in the blood or the level of gene expression that is responsible for its coding.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2559560">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2559560</a></strong></p> Dorota Gumiela ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/mmed/article/view/52 Thu, 07 Feb 2019 22:04:37 +0100 Hypoxia - an explanation of prostate cancer progression mechanisms http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/mmed/article/view/142 <p>Prostate cancer (PC) is a common malignancy in males in most industrialized countries, where it is the most commonly diagnosed cancer affecting men after middle age (&gt;50 years). Although the screening and surgical procedures for prostate cancer have improved, successful treatment is still a major challenge. In the tumor microenvironment, hypoxia is one of the crucial factors which promote an aggressive phenotype of tumor cells and decrease the effectiveness of standard treatment. It implies that tumor cells surviving hypoxic stress are likely to be a significant source of viable clonogens that can repopulate tumors with more malignant/metastatic cells. Unfortunately, most treatment protocols are less effective against hypoxic cells which are resistant not only to radiotherapy, but also to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. There is now a considerable amount of clinical evidence that tumors with a higher proportion of hypoxic cells have a poor diagnosis. Tolerance of hypoxic conditions varies in different tumor types. However, prostate cancer cells seem to be highly tolerant of hypoxia. The main problem concerning the effectiveness of prostate tumor therapies are changes in the biology of hypoxic tumor cells after standard hormone- and radiotherapy. Despite the many studies of tumor hypoxia, very little attention has been given to the oxygen concentration in the conditions of in vitro cancer cells studies. To date, there has been no comprehensive characterization of prostate cancer cells under hypoxic condition, which seems to be crucial in the light of the intensive search for novel cancer therapies.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2567558">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2567558</a></strong></p> Paweł Szymański, Krzysztof Roszkowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/mmed/article/view/142 Thu, 07 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0100