Chromatographic and antiproliferative assessment of the aerial root of Ficus thonningii Blume (Moraceae)
Ficus thonningii (Blume) has long history of use for variety of ailments. The hot aqueous extract of Ficus thonningii aerial root (FT) was obtained by infusion. The antiproliferative activity of FT was evaluated using Sorghum bicolor seed radicle over a period of 24 h to 96 h. The mean radicle length (mm), percentage inhibition and percentage growth were calculated. Chemical characterization of FT was done using chromatographic techniques. Thin layer chromatography revealed the presence of β-sitosterol. High performance liquid chromatography showed ten peaks with gallic acid, tannins, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid and morin eluting at 3.530, 3.928, 4.668, 6.706, 7.669 and 18.844 minutes respectively. Compared with negative control, FT at 1 mg/ml to 32 mg/ml significantly (p<0.0001) inhibited S. bicolor seed radicle growth over 24 h-96 h. At 96h, FT dose-dependently inhibited S. bicolor seed growth, giving a percentage inhibition of 20.31%, 24.30%, 31.71%, 53.23%, 78.74%, 95.37% at 1 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml, 4 mg/ml, 8 mg/ml, 16 mg/ml, 32 mg/ml, respectively. Methotrexate 50 µg/ml used as the positive control gave inhibition of 70.62% at 96h. The result revealed the potential of FT to inhibit rapid proliferating cells of S. bicolor seed radicle and by extension cancer cells.
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