European Journal of Biological Research <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> en-US (Joanna Bródka) (Joanna Bródka) Mon, 29 Jan 2024 13:38:06 +0100 OJS 60 Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in Campylobacter species from pig and cattle samples in Ibadan, Nigeria <p><em>Campylobacter</em> species are the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide with incidence cases higher than those caused by <em>Salmonella</em>. This study was designed to determine the antibiotic resistance patterns and virulence genes detection in selected Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) strains of <em>Campylobacter</em> species isolated from pigs and cattle dungs. Stool samples were collected from pigs and cattle at the teaching and research farm of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Isolation and identification of <em>Campylobacter </em>species were made using modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar and standard biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using the disk diffusion technique. The <em>hipO</em> and <em>cadF</em> virulence genes were detected using a multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. The occurrence of <em>Campylobacter</em> species in pigs and cattle was 90.0% and 95.0%, respectively. In pigs, <em>C. </em><em>coli</em> had the highest occurrence, while it was <em>C. </em><em>jejuni</em> in cattle. The antibiotic resistance patterns showed that 1.3% and 1.2% of the isolates from pigs and cattle, respectively were resistant to all the antibiotics tested. Among the selected MDR strains, <em>cadF </em>genes were detected in 76.5% (pigs) and 75.0% (cattle). However, <em>hipO </em>genes were detected in 11.8% (pigs) and 50.0% (cattle) isolates. The <em>cadF </em>gene was detected in all the <em>Campylobacter</em> species, while <em>hipO</em> gene was detected only in <em>C. jejuni</em>. In conclusion, the pigs and cattle faecal wastes harbored virulent and multidrug-resistant <em>Campylobacter</em> species. Hence, the indiscriminate discharge of untreated animal faecal wastes into the environment and water bodies should be discouraged.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Olutayo Israel Falodun, Odunsanmi Ajibodun Waleola ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 02 Apr 2024 23:07:11 +0200 Food safety management: preventive strategies and control of pathogenic microorganisms in food <p>Food security is a paramount concern worldwide, as the consumption of food contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms can result in serious risks to human health. The presence of bacteria, fungi, and other potentially harmful microorganisms in food is a reality that demands rigorous preventive and control measures to ensure the quality and safety of food products. In this context, this review addresses food safety management as a preventive and control measure for pathogenic microorganisms in food, aiming to safeguard public health and ensure product quality. The article discusses the importance of strict hygienic practices throughout the food chain, from production to consumption, and analyzes predominant pathogenic microorganisms that can cause foodborne illnesses. The study highlights the relevance of conventional and advanced techniques for microbiological identification as effective tools for accurate and rapid detection of microorganisms in food. Key elements such as temperature, pH, water activity, and additives are emphasized as crucial in inhibiting microbial proliferation. The implementation of quality management systems, notably the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system, and collaboration among various stakeholders are identified as essential to ensuring food safety. The importance of consumer education regarding safe food handling and storage practices is also emphasized. The conclusion emphasizes the central significance of food safety management as a foundation for population health and well-being, reinforcing that synergy and shared responsibility are indispensable pillars to ensure the supply of safe and healthy food for human consumption.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Pedro Henrique Mainardi, Ederio Dino Bidoia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 28 Feb 2024 22:41:10 +0100 Coccidiosis of domestic food animals in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis <p>A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on coccidiosis in domestic food animals in Africa spanning the period from 2002 to 2022 was done with the objective of identifying the distribution of studies on the infection and aggregation of prevalence of the parasite in the study animals. A total of 43 articles met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review. These include 16 studies on cattle, 9 on sheep, 7 on goats, 2 on pigs and 18 on poultry. The results revealed pooled data from 8,717 cattle, out of which 3,211, representing 36.84%, were positive for coccidiosis. In sheep, a total of 1,916 samples were pooled, out of which 895 representing 46.71%, were positive for the disease. In goats, 2,148 samples were pooled, out of which 1,316, representing 61.26%, were positive for the disease. Two studies gave a total of 610 samples in pigs, out of which 78, representing 12.78%, were positive for coccidiosis. In poultry, 7,261 samples were pooled, out of which 2,894, representing 39.86%, were positive for coccidiosis. There were however, no significant differences in prevalence between the five species. The concentration method of ova and parasite examination was the commonest method of isolation of <em>Eimeria</em> identified in the current review. In conclusion, <em>Eimeria</em> infection is high in food animals in Africa. Therefore, to tackle the disease, there is a need for a concerted effort in the identification, diagnosis and general prevention and control of the disease.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Abdul-Razak Mohammed Raji, Papa Kofi Amissah-Reynolds ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 29 Jan 2024 13:31:15 +0100 Impact of irrigation regimes on productivity and profitability of maize + peanut intercropping system in Upper Egypt <p>Good management of soil and water use is one of the most important factors in agricultural sustainability, and intercropping systems are an important component of good agricultural practices. Thus, a field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Arab Al-Awamer Research Station, Assiut Governorate, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt, during the summer seasons of 2021 and 2022 to investigate the effect of maize (M) + peanut (P) intercropping system on productivity, water use efficiency, and profitability at varying irrigation regimes. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design using a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Irrigation regimes (120, 100 and 80% ETc) were assigned to the main plots, while the intercropping systems (100% P + 25% M, 100% P + 33% M and 100% P + 50% M) were allocated to the sub-plots. The results showed that most traits of peanut and maize decreased substantially under the 80% ETc irrigation regime. While the largest values of traits were associated with the 120 % ETc. Averaged across the two seasons, the highest values of net return (1,441 US$/ha) were obtained when 100% peanut plants were intercropped with 25% maize at 120% ETc irrigation regime. Therefore, we recommend intercrop maize (25%) with peanut (100%) irrigated with 120% ETc to achieve higher yields and net return.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Wael Hamd-Alla, Manal A. K. Shehata, Ahmed A. A. Leilah, Reda Kh. Darwesh, Mohamed Hefzy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 20 Dec 2023 23:06:52 +0100 Photoperiodic gene expression of insulin receptor is associated with diapause regulation in silkworm <p>Bivoltine silkworms (<em>Bombyx mori</em>) are destined to respectively produce diapause or non-diapause eggs when they are reared under short or long days during the larval stage. The insulin signaling pathway is thought to play an essential role in regulating diapause in various insect species, but its involvement in silkworm diapause programming has not been investigated in detail. Therefore, we examined day-night expression of the insulin receptor (<em>InR</em>) gene in the silkworm larval brain under different photoperiods or in night interruption experiments in which larvae were exposed to light for 2 h during the nighttime of short days. Expression of the <em>InR</em> gene was photoperiod-dependent and <em>InR</em> mRNA levels decreased with increasing daylength. As the daylength increased, expression during the nighttime decreased to lower stable levels earlier than that during the daytime. During night interruptions that induced non-diapause, the nighttime expression of <em>InR</em> decreased to low levels like those during long days, although daytime expression was only moderately decreased. Nighttime <em>InR</em> expression was downregulated in silkworms reared under non-diapause-inducing conditions (long days and night interruptions). In contrast, abundant <em>InR</em> was expressed during the day and night in short days that induced diapause. Our findings suggested that <em>InR</em> expression in the larval brain is associated with programming the diapause status in the next generation of silkworms. Downregulated <em>InR</em> might suppress the insulin signaling pathway and cause non-diapause induction in the next generation.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Aya Iwamoto, Yuichi Egi, Katsuhiko Sakamoto ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 20 Dec 2023 20:59:20 +0100 HLA-A*02 affinity to SARS-CoV-2 and susceptibility to COVID-19 <p>Coronavirus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared by the World Health Organization as a global public health urgency. Considering the crucial role of HLA molecules in emerging infections, the interference of different HLA alleles on susceptibility to COVID-19 has been questioned in the scientific academy. Intending to elucidate the target ligand interactions, this present work selected the genotypes HLA-A*02, HLA-B*15, HLA-B*35 and HLA-B*44, as the most frequent in the Bahian population and the viral epitopes YLQPRTFLL, QYIKWPWYI, LTDEMIAQY, NYNYLYRLF, FIAGLIAIV, the most immunogenics of the spike glycoprotein peak. For protein selection, modeling and molecular docking was used the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND), Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB), the HADDOCK online server and the PEP-FOLD 3. Our findings suggest that HLA-A*02:01 is a risk genotype, since it showed lower energy affinity compared to HLA-B*15, HLA-B*35 and HLA-B*44.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Lucas Nascimento Ribeiro, Flávia Santos Sanches, Vinicius Meneses Lelis, Marisa Salvi, Mateus Silva Gargur, Fernanda Medina de Almeida Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Cardoso de Matos Silva, Filipe Mendes Araujo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 13 Dec 2023 18:10:02 +0100 Prevalence of tuberculosis among symptomatic individuals and the risk areas in Ondo State, Nigeria <p>Tuberculosis (TB) has been one of the diseases that are of public health problem globally. Nigeria was one out of eight countries accounting for two-thirds of people who developed TB. Of the global gap in TB case detection and notification, Ondo State reportedly has a notification gap of almost 11,100 TB cases in the year 2019 out of which only 1,891 cases were detected. The research was carried out in the three geopolitical zones of Ondo State: North, South and Central. Ondo State has 18 LGAs and an area of 14,788.7 km² with a population of 3,460,877. Participants were recruited through outreaches for the selected communities in each of the zones. The only inclusion criterion for participation in the study was those have been coughing consistently for more than two weeks. The participants were screened for HIV seropositivity by standard protocols, while screening for TB was conducted by a combination Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) microscopy and Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (Gene Xpert MTB/RIF®). Over 10,000 participants were screened, of which 3200 subjects were found having symptoms related to TB. 513 were HIV patients and 41% were TB positive. Overall TB prevalence was found to be 623(19.5%). Akure South LGA recorded the highest overall prevalence of 39.0%. In the North district, Owo LGA recorded the highest prevalence (18.0%) while the least prevalence of (3.5%) was obtained in Ose LGA. The males were more infected (26.5%) than the females (15.3%). According to age groups, age group above 55 recorded the highest prevalence of 26.8% while the least prevalence of 15.3% was obtained in the age group 16-25. Dry season recorded higher prevalence of TB than the rainy season. Patients with low microbial load recorded the highest percentage of 45% while those with low intensities recorded the lowest percentage. Ondo State, Nigeria, has a high prevalence of TB disease, therefore there is need to increase public awareness and monitoring of individuals resident in the State.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Olatunji Odeyemi, Adepeju I Simon-Oke ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 13 Dec 2023 13:38:34 +0100 Role of carvacrol and menthone in maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) management <p>Insecticides of synthetic origin used indiscriminately to manage insect pest populations are known for genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and teratogenicity in non-target organisms as well as the development of resistance in target insects. These issues have focused insect pest management research towards the use of plant-based chemicals of a volatile nature. In this study, two plant-origin volatile compounds, carvacrol and menthone have been evaluated for their potential insecticidal properties against the maize weevil <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). These two natural volatile chemicals repelled adults and caused lethality in adults as well as larvae. These two volatile chemicals inhibited acetylcholine esterase enzyme activity in adults when fumigated with sub-lethal concentrations. Both volatile chemicals reduced oviposition potential, progeny production and feeding behavior as well as prolonged the developmental period of the insect. Therefore, it can be concluded that these two natural volatile chemicals can be used in the preparation of volatile chemical-based formulations in the management of maize weevil <em>S. zeamais</em>.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Mukesh Kumar Chaubey, Namita Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 16 Nov 2023 21:53:50 +0100 Use of Arthrobotrys spp. in biocontrol of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita <p>Plant parasitic nematodes are well-known and devastating pathogens of many agricultural crops around the world. Among the plant phytoparasitic, root-knot nematodes (<em>Meloidogyne</em> spp.) are the economically important limiting factors in agricultural productivity and the quality of crops. One of the most destructive species of root-knot nematodes is <em>Meloidogyne incognita</em> among the most important plant pests which cause severe problems in economically important crops such as vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants. Root-knot nematodes can be managed by resistant cultivars, crop rotation, cultural practices, chemical nematicides and biocontrol agents. However, the use of nematicides can cause significant problems, including environmental pollution and long-term residue issues. Therefore, biological control with fungus is agriculturally useful an exciting and rapidly developing research area and especially there is growing attention to the exploitation of fungi for the control of nematodes. Nematophagous fungi are an important group of soil microorganisms that can suppress the populations of plant parasitic nematodes. These fungi can be divided into four main categories: endoparasitic fungi, nematode-trapping fungi, fungi that parasitic egg and female, and toxin-producing fungi. Among the nematophagous fungi, nematode-trapping fungi which are natural enemies of nematodes are the most studied. The nematode-trapping fungi develop hyphal structures. <em>Arthrobotrys</em> spp. are a well-known nematode-trapping fungus with biocontrol potential against root-knot nematodes, including <em>M. incognita</em>. The objective of this paper is to summarize the data on the potential for use of <em>Arthrobotrys</em> spp. in biocontrol of the root-knot nematode <em>M. incognita</em>.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Cafer Eken, Gülsüm Uysal, Dudu Demir, Selda Çalışkan, Emre Sevindik, Kardelen Çağlayan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 17 Oct 2023 23:01:33 +0200 The effect of low doses of glyphosate on reactive oxygen species production by human granulocytes <p>Glyphosate is the base of numerous herbicides used widely all over the world. Strong hepato- and nephrotoxicity of high doses of this reagent was reported in laboratory animal studies. In European Union countries the acceptable daily intake for humans is set at 0.5 mg/kg body weight. We investigated the effects of glyphosate on peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) at relatively low concentrations of the reagent, from 0.01 mg/L to 10 mg/L (from ~0.06 μM to 59 μM). As the biological half-life of this compound in the human body is estimated to be 3 to 10 hours, we decided to incubate blood samples with glyphosate for a period of one hour. Such incubation caused a statistically significant increase of reactive oxygen species production in granulocytes stimulated with N-formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine and <em>Escherichia coli</em> cells. This increase was not associated with the toxic effects of glyphosate or with increased phagocytic activity of granulocytes. The reagent, when applied at specified concentrations, did not induce a respiratory burst in granulocytes or affect the amount of production of reactive oxygen species in blood samples stimulated with 12-myristate phorbol 13-acetate. On the basis of the results obtained, it may be suggested that glyphosate affects signaling pathways leading to NADPH oxidase activation, independent of protein kinase C activation. Thus, it can be concluded that although low doses of glyphosate are not harmful to humans, synergistic effects of this compound with other environmental pollutants may be an important part of pathogenic mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Jacek Sikora, Joanna Jagielska, Krzysztof Kaszkowiak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 10 Oct 2023 20:49:16 +0200 Papillomavirus and cervical cancer: epidemiological study in a population of women in eastern Algeria <p>Cervical cancer, predominantly caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), is a significant public health issue in Algeria. While HPV is the primary pathogenic agent and sexually transmitted, other sexual and non-sexual factors also contribute as co-factors in the progression of HPV infection to cervical cancer. This study aims to identify the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical cancer in Algeria. The study included 54 women with cervical-vaginal smear abnormalities due to HPV infection, with an average age of 42.29 years (range: 25 to 65 years) and 7.40% being menopausal. Women married at an average age of 22.52 years, with 25.92% marrying before age 25 and 37.04% between 20 and 25 years. Parity ranged from 1 to 10 children, with an average of 4.96 births per woman. Among the women studied, 48.14% had an erosive cervix, 37.03% experienced cervix bleeding on contact, 11.11% had polypoid lesions, 7.4% were diabetic, and 7.4% had a history of recurrent genital infection. Cervical cancer is preventable through vigilant screening and early diagnosis. With an estimated incidence of 15.6 per 105,000 women annually, it ranks as the second most common cancer in Algerian women, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Emphasizing the importance of timely detection, this study highlights the need for proactive measures to combat cervical cancer, reducing its human and financial burdens.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nedjoua Sekhri-Arafa, Abdelhakim Khainnar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 04 Oct 2023 11:31:35 +0200 Identification of a novel mutation of rare CLN6 case and computation protein structure <p>Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), also known as Batten disease, jointly account for the highest incidences of hereditary neurodegenerative disease in childhood. This disease is mainly presented by vision loss, ataxia, premature mortality in later stages, and epileptic seizures. NCLs are categorized into different types that rely on deficiencies in several genes. CLN6 is one of the identified NCLs, and a mutated gene affects a transmembrane protein embedded in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (RM). Here, we report two cases presenting clinical features of CLN6. A homozygous novel mutation NM_017882.2: Exon 7: c.268A&gt;G (p.Asn90Asp) as well as another homozygous mutation in NM_017882.2: Exon 3: c.679G&lt;A. Following the finding of novel mutation, the Sanger sequencing method was employed to confirm the outcome. Also, we performed a 3D structure prediction for the CLN6 protein. InterPro was taken advantage to assess the domains and function in mutated sites. Both mutations are located in the extracellular domain of the CLN6 protein.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Fozhan Saboori, Nazanin Ghaderi Nejad, Naghmeh Gholipour ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 03 Oct 2023 23:09:53 +0200 Accumulation of heavy metals in soil: sources, toxicity, health impacts, and remediation by earthworms <p>Heavy metals pose serious threats to both individuals and the environment, and there is growing global concern over potentially harmful elements. Heavy metal contamination can have a significant impact on the soil ecosystem's functioning. This requires convenient, efficient, and beneficial remediation approaches. The “ecosystem engineer”, earthworms, can modify and enhance soil quality. The ability of earthworms to bioaccumulate metals in substantial amounts in their tissues makes them potentially beneficial as an ecological indicator of soil pollution. Vermiremediation is a new discipline of research in which earthworms are used to detoxify organically contaminated soils. Earthworms have an influential metabolic system, and their gut bacteria and chloragocyte cells play a significant role in their tendency to valorize and detoxify heavy metals. Remediation by earthworms can be considered sustainable, efficient, and ecologically beneficial. The present review provides a wide range of information on earthworms' appropriateness as prospective species for bioremediation and detoxification of toxic metal-contaminated soil to mitigate human health and environmental problems.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nishat Fatima, Keshav Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 01 Aug 2023 21:58:18 +0200 Indigenous plant Cannabis sativa: a comprehensive ethnobotanical and pharmacological review <p><em>Cannabis sativa</em> (L.) is a plant indigenous to Central Asia and South-East Asia. It is widely used in ethnomedicines as an anti-inflammatory,&nbsp;antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, anticancer, antitumor, neuroprotective, anti-mutagenic, anti-allergic, and antibiotic. Numerous <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> investigations have already established these attributes of <em>Cannabis</em>. Numerous toxicological studies have demonstrated the dose-dependent toxicity of <em>C. sativa</em> against various pests. The exact identity of the phytoconstituents of <em>C. sativa </em>responsible for the observed biological effects and their mode of action at the molecular level is yet to be ascertained. This review provides a comprehensive update to the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, and toxicological profile of <em>Cannabis sativa</em>.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nilay Vishal Singh, Vinay Kumar Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Multidrug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from medical centers of Batna (north-east Algeria) <p>The emergence of resistant strains of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is a major public health problem mainly in hospitals around the world and in Algeria in particular. This work aims to assess the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in the University Hospital Center of Batna and the Hematology Unit of the Anti-Cancer Center using conventional standardized methods during a study period of four months. A total of&nbsp; 70 strains of <em>S. aureus</em> were isolated and their antibiotic susceptibility study showed significant resistance to β-lactam especially to penicillin (95.71%) and&nbsp; 61.43% to tobramycin. The methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) formed 30%. Resistant strains to macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B (MLSB) and aminoglycosides (KTG) classes presented 17.14% and 21.43% respectively. These results require a control plan by compliance with the hygiene conditions and the organization of the prescription of antibiotics and other molecular and epidemiological studies.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Manel Merradi, Nessiba Kerriche, Selma Kerriche, Ahmed Kassah-Laouar, Nouzha Heleili ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 02 Jun 2023 00:18:36 +0200 In vivo assessment of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Phlomis crinita polyphenols <p>The leaves of <em>Phlomis crinita</em> are traditionally used in Algerian medicine for the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. In order to find a potential application for this native species, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects were investigated on various <em>in vivo</em> experimental models, and the total phenolic compounds and flavonoid contents were determined. The carrageenan-induced paw edema method was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract <em>in vivo</em>, while the <em>in vivo</em> antioxidant effect was assessed by estimating oxidative stress parameters (MDA, CAT, and SOD). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of substances with high therapeutic values. <em>In vivo</em> anti-inflammatory studies show that plant extract has a significant and dose-dependent impact on the inhibition of edema formation. The maximum percentage inhibition value was 87.79% after 4 h at a concentration of 500 mg/kg. Moreover, the administration of the extract significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the livers of mice. It significantly (<em>p ˂</em> 0.05) increased CAT and SOD activities and significantly (<em>p ˂</em> 0.05) decreased the MDA level activity, compared to the control inflammatory group. Our findings support that <em>Phlomis crinita</em> can be considered as a promising source of therapeutic bioactive compounds.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Hanane Boutennoun, Lilia Boussouf, Nassima Balli, Lila Boulekbache Makhlouf, Khodir Madani, Khaled Al-Qaoud ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 24 Apr 2023 22:26:05 +0200 Toxigenic fungi and contamination by AFB1 in Algerian traditional foods markets <p>This work focused on the realization of a mycological and mycotoxicological study of certain foods manufactured in a traditional way (couscous and spice of <em>Capsicum annuum</em> known locally under the name of sweet hror) and marketed in the city of Bechar. The physico-chemical analyzes revealed that all the samples were poorly hydrated where the average values ​​of relative humidity ranged between 7.23% and 13.58%. For the pH, the values ​​varied between 5.22 and 6.95. The enumeration of the fungal flora indicated that the couscous samples (coarse and fine) represented a contamination rate of 2.92*10<sup>2</sup> and 1.71*10<sup>2</sup> CFU/g respectively. While, the sweet hror samples represented a higher contamination rate (4.68*10<sup>2</sup> CFU/g), with a clear dominance of the genera of <em>Aspergillus</em> (46.42%) and <em>Penicillium</em> (26.28%). Otherwise, the mycotoxicological analysis showed us that 78.55% of the <em>Aspergillus</em> isolates of the group (<em>flavus</em>-<em>parasiticus</em>) tested were producers of aflatoxins (B<sub>1</sub> and G<sub>1</sub>) and that 86.66% of the isolates of <em>A</em>. <em>ochraceus</em> and 40% of <em>Penicillium </em>species, were ochratoxin A producers. In addition, the detection of mycotoxins at the sample level revealed that 63.63% of couscous samples were contaminated with mycotoxins. While sweet hror was the most contaminated (78.57%). Furthermore, the quantification of AFB<sub>1</sub> by HPLC-FLD for 4 samples of sweet hror revealed only one contaminated sample (21.75 µg/kg). Generally, it can be admitted that the rate of contamination by AFB<sub>1</sub> was too high, which can be considered a real risk to human health.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ammar-Rachad Medjdoub, Abdellah Moussaoui, Houcine Benmehdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 24 Apr 2023 21:14:26 +0200 Potential utilization of industrial waste as feed material for the growth and reproduction of earthworms <p>The issue of managing organic waste such as animal waste and industrial waste has emerged as a result of the fast development in urbanization around the world. It can be hazardous to the environment and public health if these are not properly stored, collected, and disposed of. These biological wastes can be turned into nutrient-rich biofertilizers using the vermicomposting process. The bio-oxidative method includes the combined activity of earthworms and microbes. The pH, organic carbon, organic matter, and the C:N ratio of the various organic waste mixtures showed a declining tendency during this process but the content of nitrogen, available phosphorous and exchangeable potassium showed a rising trend as the vermicomposting time progressed. Maximum earthworm growth and reproduction were reported better in different feed materials prepared from industrial wastes. Therefore, the present review article is based on the knowledge of using earthworms to stabilize waste.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Anjali Singh, Keshav Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 13 Mar 2023 20:38:18 +0100 Mucosal membranes, their interactions to microbial infections and immune susceptibility in human hosts <p>This article presents mucosal immune defense in response to various pathogenic infections in different hosts including man. Internally, the mucosal layer (membrane) covers the respiratory, digestive, nasal, and urogenital systems and serves as a physical barrier against many groups of infections. The host pathogen's interaction with membrane receptors is highlighted in this article, as well as the commensal gut microbiota's protective function in directing both general and targeted immune defense. In order to combat numerous diseases of various types, this review emphasizes the importance of crosstalk between mucosal locations, mucosal adjuvant design, and antigen delivery mechanisms. Additionally, it denotes the function of inflammasomes, lipocalin 2, Muc2 hyaluronan, and probiotics in maintaining homeostasis, regulating the gut microbiota, and enhancing immunological protection against enteric infection and gastrointestinal inflammation. For novel potential vaccines that could activate innate and adaptive immunity in mucosal tissue, there is an urgent need to look for new protective antigens, delivery mechanisms, and mucosal adjuvants. In order to prevent the spread of infections that are drug-resistant, seek protection, and assure host immunological tolerance, this article emphasizes the necessity for new antigens in the construction of new vaccines.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ravi Kant Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Mar 2023 23:04:33 +0100 Blocking IgE with L-glutamic acid analogs as an alternative approach to allergy treatment <p>IgE-mediated allergic diseases have increased in the last decades. The most prevalent allergens from these seeds are Ric c1 and Ric c3, isoforms of 2S albumin. These allergenic proteins cross-react with allergens from peanut, shrimp, fish, corn, gramineous, house dust, and tobacco. The usual allergy treatment employs antihistaminic, immunotherapies and, omalizumab (Xolair)-based anti-IgE therapy. However, antihistaminics relieve symptoms, and the high cost of omalizumab limits its use for continuous treatment. We propose an alternative immunotherapeutic approach, denoted “IgE-blockage” by L-glutamic acid or modified-glutamic acid. Six compounds, D-glutamic acid, L-glutamic acid, N-methyl-L-glutamic acid, N-acetyl-L-glutamic acid, N-(4-nitrobenzoyl)-L-glutamic acid, and N-carbamyl-L-glutamic, were tested as a blocker. To evaluate motor coordination and the sedative/hypnotic activity of L-glutamic acid, a rota-rod test and a thiopental sodium-induced sleeping test were used. The compounds, L-glutamic acid and L-nitrobenzoyl glutamic acid, were the most active compounds to block the interaction of castor allergens with IgE. These compounds also prevent cross-responses with allergens from food sources and inhalants that cross-react with them. In the sleeping test, the groups that received L-glutamic acid at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg had a sleeping time similar to the vehicle control group. No changes in the animals' behavior were observed and there was no difference between the L-glutamic acid groups and the vehicle control groups in the rota-rod test. L-glutamic acid and L-nitrobenzoyl glutamic acid can used as IgE blocker to prevent allergic diseases.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Débora Mothé de Campos-Mesquita, Giliane Silva de Souza, Marinete Pinheiro Carrera, Arthur Giraldi-Guimarães, Olga Lima Tavares Machado ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Feb 2023 21:06:22 +0100