European Journal of Biological Research <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> en-US (Joanna Bródka) (Joanna Bródka) Tue, 05 Jan 2021 21:57:52 +0100 OJS 60 Study of aquatic biodiversity and correlation with physical parameters of Jalangi river <p>The present study is concerned to assess the present status of aquatic biodiversity and its correlation with few physical parameters of river Jalangi. The study shows more than 35 species of freshwater fishes, eight species of zooplanktons, four species of dragonflies and two species of damselflies, few species of mollusks, which reflects that the river Janangi is full of diversity with respect to flora and fauna. The river is full of eel grass. River Jalangi is also a habitat of water striders, few crab species and aquatic snakes. In few areas, pollution may affect the present ecological status of Jalangi River in near future. This preliminary study identifies the overall biodiversity status of Jalangi. However, more work in this direction is required to make complete database on floral and faunal diversity of this river.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Monojit Ray, Sandip Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 07 Feb 2021 21:39:04 +0100 Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials, total phenolic contents of some herbal waters <p>The aim of the actual study is to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials, total phenolic contents of thyme (<em>Thymus</em> sp.), myrtle (<em>Myrtus communis</em> L.), eucalyptus (<em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> L.) and rosemary herbal waters (<em>Rosmarinus officinalis</em> L.). They were bought a retailer in Giresun. In the studies, it was determined that only thyme water exhibited antimicrobial activity in all herbal waters. Streptomycine, tetracycline and nystatin which were synthetic antimicrobials demonstrated higher activity than studied herbal waters. Moreover; total flavonoid contents of the tested waters ranges from 50.19±0.0038 µL CE/mL to 126.15±0.004 µL CE/mL. The highest and the lowest total phenolic contents were detected in the thyme water and the eucalyptus water as 688.18±0.009 µL GAE/mL and 24.54±0.0008 µL GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the herbal waters exhibited a dose dependent manner and increased with increasing conentrations. As a result of this study, it was concluded that thyme water could be an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents and thyme water, myrtle water, eucalyptus water and rosemary waters might be an alternative to synthetic antioxidative agents. Hence, further and detailed investigations are needed to determine active constituents in the herbal waters.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sinem Aydin, Ayşegül Caniklioğlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 04 Feb 2021 15:31:51 +0100 Efficacy of Detarium microcarpum extracts and synergistic effect of combine extract and ivermectin against Caenorhabditis elegans <p>This work tested the efficacy of crude methanol and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of <em>Detarium microcarpum </em>and the effect of combined extract and ivermectin<em> in vitro</em> against the motility of <em>C. elegans</em> Bristol N2 and <em>C. elegans</em> DA1316 L4 larvae. Series of concentrations (0.2, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/ml) of aqueous and methanolic extracts of <em>D. microcarpum</em> was used for the test. Counting of the motile larvae was carried out after 24 hours and 48 hours. A further test was carried out using a combination of plant extract and ivermectin. Both the aqueous and the methanolic extracts exhibited good anthelmintic activity in the inhibition of larval motility of<em> C. elegans</em> Bristol N2 as well of<em> C. elegans </em>DA1316 with a significant difference at P &lt; 0.05 when compared to the negative control. However, a significant difference occurred between treatment with aqueous and methanolic extract at P &lt; 0.05. The performance of the extracts was concentration and time-dependent. A combination of plant extract and ivermectin prove more potent than the pure extract against both strains of <em>C. elegans.</em> These extracts may be used to control parasitic nematodes including ivermectin resistant type. Treatment using combined plant anthelmintic and synthetic drugs should be encouraged as the combination was more promising. Further studies should be carried on the identification of active compounds in the extracts and studying the mode of action of the drugs on the nematodes and <em>in vivo</em> tests of the extract.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Haladu Ali Gagman, Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzaudin Nik Him, Bashir Mohammed Abubakar, Hamdan Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Feb 2021 22:02:53 +0100 Investigation of the effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic field on the lifespan of the red blood cells in vitro <p>In recent years, studies have indicated that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may have harmful effects on human health. The effects on human health of the 50 Hz extremely low frequency EMF (ELF-EMF), which is often used in daily life, are still controversial. In our study, we investigated the in vitro effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF on the lifespan of erythrocytes, which have no nucleus and organelles, and are therefore relatively more sensitive compared to other cells in the body to any harmful effect that may come from outside. Whole blood obtained from healthy volunteers was exposed to 50 Hz, 0.3 mT ELF-EMF over 35 days. After this time, erythrocytes (red blood cell, RBC) counts in blood, hematocrit (HCT) value, main corpuscular volume (MCV), and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), an indicator of aging, were examined. At the end of 35 days, RBC and HCT were decreased while MCV and EOF were increased in the blood samples of both the EMF-exposed group and the non-exposed group. However, while there were no statistically significant changes in terms of RBC counts, and HCT between the two groups, it was observed that MCV and EOF increased significantly less in the EMF-exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. These results suggest that 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure does not affect the lifespan of erythrocytes in vitro, but it may extend erythrocytes’ lifecycles due to a reduction in osmotic fragility of the erythrocytes in in vivo conditions.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sinem Elmas, Onur Elmas, Ahmet Zeybek ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 Jan 2021 16:19:24 +0100 Total phenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant and cytotoxicity assessment of Algerian Launaea glomerata (Cass.) Hook.f. extracts <p>El-Oued province (southeast Algeria), is located in a medicinal plant-rich area; <em>Launaea glomerata</em> (Cass.) Hook. f. is one among them which is a perennial herb spread widely in the arid regions of the Mediterranean Sea. The selection of the studied plant corresponds perfectly to the scientific needs due two reasons, firstly because these samples are used by the Algerian population as herbal remedies for primary health care, secondly, for the lack of published data on it. The aim of this investigation is to provide new data on quantities of phenols, which were estimated at 25.81 mg GAE/g extract and flavonoids (49.13 mg RE/g extract), and the determination of antioxidant activities by three ways (DPPH, CAT, ABTS), the results of IC<sub>50 </sub>equals to 98.07 mg TE/g extract for DPPH• and 286.5 mg eq. AG/g for ABTS assays, noted that the best inhibition was by the ABTS root. We also conducted a test for the inhibitory ability of extract against cancer cells tested on both human hepatocellular carcinoma (HePG2) and colon cells (HCT116), the results were negative. The data obtained in this work can be useful for the pharmaceutical industry, also used in the Algerian medicinal herbs database.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Imane Chelalba, Abdelkrim Rebiai, Hanane Debbeche, Samir Begaa, Mohammed Messaoudi, Naima Benchikha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 09 Jan 2021 15:46:55 +0100 Withania somnifera against glutamate excitotoxicity and neuronal cell loss in a scopolamine-induced rat model of Alzheimer’s disease <p>Alzheimer’s disease, a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no prevention and cure, affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system involved in 50% of basic brain functions, especially cortical and hippocampal regions, like memory, cognition, and learning. The glutamate-mediated toxicity is termed as excitotoxicity. The present study was aimed to determine whether the methanolic and water extracts of root from the medicinal plant, <em>Withania somnifera</em>, could decrease the glutamate excitotoxicity and its related neuronal cell loss in a scopolamine-induced animal model of Alzheimer's disease. The rats were randomly divided into different groups of 5 in each: normal control - treated orally with saline; AD model - injected intra peritoneally with scopolamine (2 mg/Kg body wt) alone to induce Alzheimer's disease; AD model rats treated orally with the methanolic extract (AD+ME-WS) (300 mg/Kg body wt), water extract (AD+WE-WS) (300 mg/Kg body wt), and donepezil hydrochloride, a standard control (AD+DZ) (5 mg/Kg body wt) for 30 consecutive days. Increased glutamate (Glu) levels and decreased glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity were reversed with <em>Withania somnifera</em> root extracts in both the cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions in scopolamine-induced Alzheimer's disease model rat brain. The histopathological studies of the same treatment also showed protection against neuronal cell loss in both regions. These results support the idea that these extracts could be effective for the reduction of brain damage by preventing glutamate excitotoxicity generated neuronal cell loss in the scopolamine-induced Alzheimer's disease model.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Gopalreddygari Visweswari, Rita Christopher, W. Rajendra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Jan 2021 14:08:25 +0100 Effect of different plant bio-stimulants in improving cucumber growth under soilless culture <p>There are more studies about plant bio-stimulants but no clear results about which is the best one in improving vegetable crops specially cucumber. The aim of this study is&nbsp; to screen the effect of various bio-stimulants in improving cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus </em>L.) growth under soilless culture via root application by modifying coco-peat culture media substrate. In the present study, we tested fifteen treatments as follow: T1 -control (CK); T2 - 10 mM putrescine (Put); T3 - 250 ppm seaweed (Sea); T4 - 0.02 ppm meta-topolin (MT); T5 - 100 ppm naphthalene acetic acid (NAA); T6 - 400 ppm polyaspartic acid (PAS); T7 - 50 ppm sodium nitrophenolate (98% NIT); T8 - 100 ppm tryptophan (AAF); T9 - 1% fulvic acid (FUL); T10 - 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/ml <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> (BAS); T11 - 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/ml <em>Trichoderma</em> (TRI); T12 - 50 ppm alanine (ALa); T13 - 150 ppm salicylic acid (SA); T14 - 1 mM silicon (SiO<sub>2</sub>) and T15 - 0.001 ppm 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). The results obviously showed that using all bio-stimulants significantly increased cucumber growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaves number, leaf area, shoot fresh weight, and root fresh weight). Seedlings Vigor Index (SVI) increased multifold compared with control by all treatments. The increase in cucumber seedlings vigor had a highly significant effect compared with control and the increase was 55.9% followed by 55.2% and 53.4% by Put, MT, and EBR treatments respectively. Our study concluded that the application of plant bio-stimulants can be used to modify coco-peat substrate with a positive effect on plant growth and improvement of cucumber plants under soilless culture.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sayed Hussein Abdelgalil, Esraa Abdallah, Weijie Jiang, Basheer Noman Sallam, Hongjun Yu, Peng Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 05 Jan 2021 21:53:33 +0100 Prevalence of common inhaled allergies in Erbil province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq <p>Nowadays, inhaled allergens are the main causes of allergic diseases, which are derived from different sources such as animal dander, grasses, tree, insects and fungi/molds. Identification and detection of allergens play a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of many allergic diseases. Aims were to determine the prevalence of most common inhaled allergens in Erbil province and determination the intensity of allergic response among allergic patients against 35 identified inhaled allergens items. A total number of 170 patients suffering from suspected inhalant allergy were checked in the present study. The study was carried out for patients who visited the private clinical sectors between 2018-2020 in Erbil province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Determination of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies was examined for suspected patients. The country-specific inhaled allergy profile “Euroline inhaled Iraq 1” (Catalog no: DP 313816011 E, IVD approved, and CE certified EUROLINE immunoblot), containing strip for 35 different inhalant allergens, has been used in this study. Positive specific IgE to inhaled allergens was detected in 22.35% of our suspected patients. Orchard grass (21.05%) was the most inhaled allergen in our 38 allergic patients, followed by the Meadow foxtail (15.78%), Cockroach German and Sweet vernal grass (13.15%). Based on the present study results, we conclude that the prevalence of inhaled allergy differed between men and women in different age groups. Our study reached that there were no associations between inhaled allergens and sex or age.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Shkar Rzgar K. Rostam, Khattab Ahmed Mustafa Shekhany, Harem Othman Smail ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Marine biomolecules: a promising approach in therapy and biotechnology <p>The marine environment is characterized by a wide diversity of microorganisms among which marine bacteria. To insure their survival in hostile conditions where they face high competition with pathogenic microorganisms, they produce various kinds of bioactive molecules within biofilms with unique structural and functional features. As example: marine peptides which provide a broad spectrum of antimicrobial, antitumoral, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, in addition to marine exopolysaccharides showing antifouling and antifungal activities, immunomodulatory properties, emulsion stabilization capacity with other various potentials. Some biofilms have shown a beneficial role for aquaculture, among which enhancement of growth performance and improvement of water quality, while others are threatening not only aquaculture and maritime fields, but also medicine and food industry. Thus, marine bioactive compounds are promising preventing agents for the establishment and growth of fouling microorganisms, which may be useful in different fields in order to decrease economic losses and avoid foodborne illnesses.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Asmaa Chbel, Aurelio Serrano Delgado, Abdelaziz Soukri, Bouchra El Khalfi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 22 Dec 2020 11:28:10 +0100 Organoids: inception and utilization of 3D organ models <p>Over the previous decade, one of the most exciting advancements in stem cell technology has been the development of organoid culture system. Organoids are new research tools created in-vitro, to form self-organizing 3-Dimensional structures that encompass some of the crucial characteristics of the represented organ. Organoids are grown from stem cells from an organ of interest. There are potentially as many types of organoids as there are different tissues and organs in a body. It is challenging for scientists to understand the underlying mechanism of biological processes with complex spatial cellular organization and tissue dynamics. Also, how they are disrupted in a disease is impossible to study in-vivo, but discovery of organoids is revolutionizing the fields of biology. Since success in these platforms will be restricted without the proficiency to alter the genomic content, genome engineering was also applied in recently discovered organoid cultures for correcting mutations. This review discusses the history, culturing methods, current achievements, and potential applications of this technique. These applications involve drug screening, personalized oncological medication, disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and developmental biology. The study of organoids has provided a novel platform in biological sciences, with new approaches for stem cell technology.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Akshatha Banadka, Amesha Panwar, Himakshi Bhagwanani, Prognya Saha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 19 Dec 2020 14:40:46 +0100 Therapeutic challenges of COVID-19: strategies of empirical treatment <p>Coronavirus pandemic, is a progressing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), brought about by sever acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The episode was first distinguished in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The World Health Organization announced a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March. Scientists around the world are working to establish an effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2 to control the spread of this pandemic. In this review, we summarized the potential therapeutic strategies for treatment of COVID-19 and dividing the treatments to several categories including antiviral drugs which act on decreasing the viral load inside the body of patients, immunotherapy and immunomodulatory which relive the inflammatory process of viral infection.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ahmed Hasan Mohammed, Alzahraa Albatool Ibrahim Saber ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 17 Dec 2020 22:16:59 +0100 Establishment of plant residues and inorganic fertilizer application for growth and yield of Vigna unguiculata (L.) in flood-affected cropland of Koshi Tappu Region, Eastern Nepal <p>Flood increases due to an increase in river overflow which affects on abiotic and biotic factors. The preliminary study of flood-affected crops was carried out in flood-affected cropland of Koshi Tappu Region of Eastern Nepal. For the experiment the plant residues of <em>Eichhornia crassipes</em> and <em>Sesbania rostrata</em> and inorganic fertilizer were selected to examine the growth and yield in <em>Vigna unguiculata</em>. The appropriate treatments for the production of <em>V. unguiculata</em> were analyzed. Before applying treatments, soil was collected and analyzed for physicochemical, microbial biomass and available nitrogen. Soil texture, soil moisture, water holding capacity and bulk density (BD) were calculated. The parameters such as soil pH organic carbon, organic matter and total nitrogen were determined. Soil microbe increases the significance of organic carbon and soil nitrogen is correlated for growth and yield. The results showed that the combined urea and plant residue increases the highest yield. And the <em>Eichhornia</em> compost represents the highest leaf area index and biomass. The total pod production was found in the <em>Echhhornia</em> compost. The dry weight per single pod in <em>Eichhornia</em> fresh was 7.82 g and in <em>Sesbania</em> fresh was 7.42 g. It proves that the land pattern is significant for the soil organic compounds. The experiment showed that the use of plant residues enhanced the increase of physicochemical properties of soil by adding the nutrients. The combined Urea + <em>Eichhornia</em> supports the best growth and development of the plant.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Niroj Paudel, Samjhana Subedi, Tej Narayan Mandal, Bishnu Dev Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 17 Dec 2020 21:29:17 +0100 Ayurveda and Yoga practices: a synergistic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disease which affects about over 30 million people worldwide. There is no suitable treatment for AD nowadays. The current scenario of the research in the field of the search for suitable therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease should be a shift towards the combinatorial approach of Ayurveda and Yoga. This review is mainly focused on to adapt Ayurveda and Yoga approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Shailendra Kumar Mishra, Sandeep Kumar Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 14 Dec 2020 15:49:27 +0100 The concentration of glyphosate in the tap water in Greater Poland Region <p>The harmfull effects of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) on animal and human health was stated by many researchers. The studies on such effects concerned mainly the people exposed to herbicides. In the environment, glyphosate remains relatively stable, with half-life ranged between a few days to several months or even a year in field studies, depending on soil composition. As this herbicide the widely used all over the world, the monitoring its concentration in everyday food becomes necessary. The aim of the study was to estimate the glyphosate levels in tap water samples collected from different Water Treatment Plants in Greater Poland region. The concentration of glyphosate was measured in 66 randomly collected drinking water samples from separate Water Treatment Plants. Measurements were done using two analytical techniques: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography technique. Levels of glyphosate in the tested samples were low (0.15±0.07 µg/L). Both assays have been found well suited to the analysis of glyphosate concentrations in the drinking water. The concentration of glyphosate in the tap water is very low, and could be discarded in estimation of daily intake of this herbicide in Great Poland region. So, it is unlikely that drinking water from Water Treatment Plants can be important source of glyphosate contamination in urbanized populations compared to vegetables, fruit and other possible sources.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Krzysztof Kaszkowiak, Tomasz Kubacki, Jacek Olejniczak, Igor Bondarenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 07 Dec 2020 22:03:21 +0100 Multiple antibiotic resistant index and detection of qnrS and qnrB genes in bacterial consortium of urine samples from clinical settings <p>The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) index and detection of resistant genes in the bacterial consortium of urine samples collected from University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure (UNIMEDTH) was evaluated with all microbiological and biotechnological techniques employed utilizing specified standards in this study. <em>Escherichia coli </em>had the highest bacterial count (311.50 ± 0.707 CFU/ml) while <em>Staphylococcus saprophyticus </em>had the least (13.00 ± 2.828 CFU/ml). <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, and <em>Pseudomonas</em> <em>aeruginosa</em> isolate showed marked resistance against four classes of antibiotics tested. The MAR index of bacterial isolates ranged from 0.5 to 1.0. Fluoroquinolone-resistant <em>P. aeruginosa</em> identified to be <em>P. aeruginosa</em> via 16S rDNA analysis sequence analysis of 417 base pairs with strain mcbay1 deposited in GenBank with accession number MT423976 was positive for qnrS resistant gene. <em>E. faecalis</em> identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 264 bp of the strain mcbay 2 deposited in GenBank with accession number MT423977 was also positive for qnrB resistant gene. The presence of resistant genes in ciprofloxacin-resistant <em>P. aeruginosa</em> and quinolone-resistant <em>E. faecalis</em> in urine samples further emphasized the need for the regulation of over-the-counter prescription and antibiotic susceptibility survey of anti-pseudomonal and anti-enterococcal quinolones in hospital settings.</p> <p><strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> Michael Tosin Bayode, Adewale Oluwasogo Olalemi, Babayemi Olawale Oladejo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 03 Dec 2020 14:55:51 +0100 Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with nitrate reductase assay and microscopic observation drug susceptibility <p>The global increase in tuberculosis drug resistant which is a threat to its control, require low cost method of diagnosis and detection. Available conventional and molecular methods consume time, and are expensive for countries with high disease burden. Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA) and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) performance to directly detect tuberculosis resistance to four drugs was evaluated. The NRA (liquid and solid) and MODS performance of smear-positive sputum samples were evaluated; Sensitivities and specificities were compared with Proportion Method (PM). Sensitivity and specificity of liquid NRA (LNRA) were 90% and 98% (rifampicin), 81.8% and 100% (isoniazid), 88.9% and 98.1% (streptomycin), and 57.1% and 94.4% (ethambuthol). Also, the sensitivity and specificity for solid NRA (SNRA) were 69.2% and 98.3% (rifampicin); 100% and 100% (isoniazid); 88.9% and 95.2% (streptomycin); 70% and 80.6% (ethambuthol). Moreover, For MODS, rifampicin and isoniazid sensitivity and specificity was 100%, it was 100% and 98.1% for streptomycin, and 71.4% and 98.2% for ethambuthol. At day 14, the results available for LNRA, SNRA and MODS were 93%, 68.5% and 100% respectively. The agreement between LNRA and PM was 97% (RIF, INH and SM) and 90% (EMB). For SNRA, it was 93% (RIF), 100% (INH), 94% (SM) and 89% (EMB). While for MODS, it was 100% (RIF and INH), 98% (SM) and 95% (EMB). Direct NRA and MODS are sensitive, reliable and fast for antituberculosis drug susceptibility; they have potential to effectively and reliably detect drug resistant tuberculosis in the low resource countries.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Olutayo Israel Falodun, Idowu Simeon Cadmus, Obasola Ezekiel Fagade ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 29 Nov 2020 13:00:36 +0100 Exogenous potassium nitrate alleviates salt-induced oxidative stress in maize <p>The effects of the exogenous potassium nitrate application on major antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic pigment content, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and free proline were investigated in salt-stressed (75 mM NaCl) maize genotype (ADA 9510). Plants were grown in growth chamber for ten days. After five days of applications (control, 0 mM NaCl), S75 (75 mM NaCl), potassium nitrate (3 mM KNO<sub>3</sub>) and S75 + potassium nitrate (75 mM NaCl + 3 mM KNO<sub>3</sub>), plants were harvested. The results showed that salt stress significantly decreased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and free proline contents were increased by salt stress. These results showed that salinity led to the oxidative stress and destruction of photosynthetic pigments in maize leaves. The exogenous potassium nitrate application, on the other hand, caused to the increased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoid, elevated level of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, and decreased malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and free proline content. This kind of changes may indicate that the exogenous potassium nitrate application activates the antioxidant defence system and counteract the oxidative stress. Thus, it may be concluded that the exogenous potassium nitrate application improves salt tolerance and encourage the growth of maize plants under salt stress at early seedling stage.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ali Doğru, Ecenur Demirtaş ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 04 Nov 2020 22:15:43 +0100 Molecular docking studies on binding specificity of 3,6- and 2,7-carbazoles with DNA duplexes <p>Molecular docking is a widely used computational technique used to find the probabilistic binding sites of drugs in the vicinity of macromolecules. The drugs produce their working effect only when they bind and interact with the target macromolecule. The potential drugs can only be identified by their relative binding affinities and corresponding binding modes. Availability of huge numbers of such drugs has made the estimation of their relative potency, a difficult task. In the present work, carbazoles (3,6 and 2,7) and their analogs were studied for their DNA binding abilities using molecular docking calculations. Since the docked ligands had planar structures, it allowed them to adopt crescent shape and thus minor groove binding with DNA was preferred by all. However, it was found that a single molecule (Mol-6) (2,7-carbazole) showed promising results with all the selected DNA sequences also its results were exactly verified with those in the reported literature and therefore it can be said that its in-vivo studies could possibly produce some exciting results. This study also revealed that DNA binding energies of 3,6- and 2,7-carbazoles followed the same trend as their thermal melting values.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Anwesh Pandey, Manas Misra, Anil Kumar Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 29 Oct 2020 15:12:21 +0100 Beneficial effects of ascorbic acid on ivermectin repeated high-dose therapy in rabbits: biochemical and histopathological investigations <p>Ivermectin (IVM) is a lipophilic anthelmintic drug widely used for the control of internal and external parasites in both human and veterinary medicine. Conversely, overdoses of IVM are associated with resistance and efficacy problems. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated administration of a high dose of IVM alone or with combination of ascorbic acid (AA) in male young rabbits (<em>Oryctolagus cuniculus</em>) via biochemical and histological investigations. Twenty rabbits were divided into four groups (n=5) and treated for three consecutive weeks: Control group; IVM group (2 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously, 3 times a week); IVM + AAg (20 mg/mL) group and IVM + AAf (200 mg/kg of diet) group. IVM induced a disruption of hepatic biochemical parameters and lipid profile with a statistically significant&nbsp;(p &lt; 0.05) increase in glucose, ALT, AST, GGT, HDL-C and a significant decrease of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C in IVM group compared to control group. Co-administration of AA moderately improved those biochemical parameters. Histopathological changes following IVM treatment in liver comprised loss&nbsp;of normal hepatocytes structure, central vein dilation and portal vein congestion. The lung showed abnormal structure of intrapulmonary bronchus, dilated bronchioles and alveoli and congested pulmonary artery. Nevertheless, the AA treatment groups revealed significant improvement when co-administered orally with IVM. This study suggested that AA has a beneficial ameliorative role against toxic effects induced by repeated high-dose of IVM.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Makhlouf Chahrazed, Khaldoun Oularbi Hassina, Bokreta Soumya, Tarzali Dalila, Boukrid Asma, Boulahia Meriem, Daoudi Zerrouki Nacira ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 21 Oct 2020 21:38:52 +0200 In silico molecular docking of selected polyphenols against interleukin-17A target in gouty arthritis <p>The binding of Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) to its receptor causes the release of chemokine which have an implication in the pathogenesis of gouty arthritis. Though, some synthetic drugs have been proved worthy as IL-17A inhibitors in the management of gout but they have been associated with a number of side effects. Polyphenols have been documented for numerous therapeutic applications. In spite of this, there are scarce data on the mechanism of action and protective potentials of polyphenolic against gouty arthritis. This present <em>in silico </em>study aimed to assess the inhibitory potentials and ADMET properties of selected polyphenols against IL-17A using molecular docking tools. The crystal structure of IL-17A was retrieved from the protein database, while the structures of polyphenolic compounds were retrieved from Pubchem. Drug-likeness of the polyphenols was assessed using DruLiTo. A total of 22 out of 26 polyphenols investigated passed the Lipinski drug likeness rule of five which were then docked with the active site of IL-17A using docking software, and the docked complexes were analyzed using LigPlot and protein-ligand profiler web server. The results showed that all the investigated polyphenols have appreciable higher binding affinity when compared to the standard drug (allopurinol) with pelargondin and catechin having the highest binding affinity (-7.5 kcal/mol). Furthermore, ADMET screening were carried out on the five compounds with the best hits. Conclusively, this <em>in silico</em> study suggests that these investigated polyphenols could serve as better replacements for synthetic drugs such as allopurinol in the management of gouty arthritis.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Haruna Isiyaku Umar, Adeola Ajayi, Sunday Solomon Josiah, Tolulope Saliu, Jamilu Bala Danjuma, Prosper Obed Chukwuemeka ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 02 Oct 2020 22:08:09 +0200