European Journal of Biological Research <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> JBródka Publisher en-US European Journal of Biological Research 2449-8955 Biological properties and polyphenols content of Algerian Cistus salviifolius L. aerial parts <p>This study evaluated the <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant properties, antibacterial and antifungal activities and <em>in vivo</em> anti-inflammatory properties, and identifying the phenolic compounds in <em>Cistus salviifolius</em>. The methanolic leaf extract showed the highest antioxidant activity with 6.1±1.60 µg/ml IC<sub>50 </sub>value using DPPH<sup>·</sup> and 55.5±0.20 µg/ml using Reducing Power Activity. The study revealed that the butanolic leaf extract and the aqueous leaf infusion exhibited the strongest growth-inhibiting effect against all Gram positive and Gram negative strains tested, respectively, whereas the methanolic leaf extract showed the strongest antifungal activity against the yeast tested. The MIC value for the butanolic leaf extract was 4 mg/ml against <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. The pharmacotoxicological tests proved the safety of the aqueous leaf infusion, which exhibit a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, with a significant inhibition of the oedema development equal to 44.7% compared to 59.3% for the reference product diclofenac sodium. Methanolic extracts of the leaf and flower buds showed varied contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, and hydrolysable tannins; which were 228.4±11.4 mg GAE/g, 34.2±0.6 mg QE/g, and 36.9±2.6 mg TAE/g of the dry weight for leaves; and 241.1±5.4 mg GAE/g, 47.6±4.5 mg QE/g, and 22.0±1.3 mg TAE/g of the dry weight for flower buds, respectively. Analysis of the ethereal and butanolic leaf extracts using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method coupled with a Photodiode-Array Detector identified thirteen phenolic compounds, including ascorbic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and orientin.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sihem Boubekeur Mohammed Messaoudi Chinaza Godswill Awuchi Olutosin Ademola Otekunrin Barbara Sawicka Samira Idjeri-Mecherara Sihem Bouchareb Aicha Hassani Majid Sharifi-Rad Samir Begaa Abdelkrim Rebiai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-21 2022-05-21 12 2 163 180 A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): current status and challenges <p>In December, 2019 a new public health crisis threatened the world with the emergence of new zoonotic virus, the 2019 novel coronavirus. SARS-Cov-2 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 belongs to the family of coronaviruses named for the crown-like spikes on its surfaces. SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019), a contagious viral infection that attacks primarily throat and lungs causing pneumonia-like symptoms. It is speculated that SARS-CoV-2 seem to have come from a bat, but the intermediate reservoir is still unknown. This review will address SARS-CoV-2 structure, clinical features, SARS-CoV-2 genome and its different variant, diagnosis, and treatment and also gives a bird's eye view on the epidemiology and pathology based on current evidence.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nilay Vishal Singh Harshita Kaushik Vinay Kumar Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 12 2 153 162 Antidiabetic effect of oral supplementation with Caulerpa racemosa powder <p>Algae are known for their high nutritional value and the presence of bioactive compounds with anti-diabetic activity. In this study, the effects of oral supplementation with the whole powdered green alga <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> was assessed on biochemical and organic parameters in rat model of type 2 diabetes.&nbsp; Type 2 diabetes model (DM) was induced by high fat diet (HFD) (5.75 kcal/g) combined to streptozotocin injection (35 mg/kg). The DM-C500 and DM-C1000 groups were maintained on HFD and supplemented orally during four weeks with powdered <em>C. racemosa</em> at 500 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The DM-C0 group was fed with HFD without <em>C. racemosa</em> supplementation. All the experimental rats were maintained on HFD during the 30 days of experiment. <em>C. racemosa</em> at 500 mg/kg improved fasting glycaemia and glucose tolerance. The IPGTT test revealed a decrease (p&lt;0.05) in the fasting glycaemia recorded at the 120th min from day 0 (534 ± 38.88 mg/dL) to day 30 (326 ± 63.05 mg/dL). <em>C. racemosa</em> supplementation prevented liver lipid peroxidation in DM-C500 and DM-C1000 group (12.94 ± 2.20 and 10.48 ± 1.15 nmol MDA/g, respectively) compared to DM-C0 group (35.49 ± 2.30 nmol MDA/g). <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> at 500 mg/kg, and relatively at 1000 mg/kg, alleviated pancreatic, liver and renal tissue damages compared to DM-C0 groups which displayed injuries in their histological sections. <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> oral supplementation could represent a possible natural approach to prevent organic and metabolic disorders related to type 2 diabetes.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nassima El Habitri Louiza Belkacemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 12 2 141 152 CAR-T cell: an epitome for the cure of hematologic malignancies <p>There is an increasing reliance on modern cancer therapies on immunotherapeutic approaches such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapy (ACT), which includes tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), T cell receptor (TCR)-modified T cells, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). CAR-T cell therapy provides a unique approach to redirect T cells against distinct tumor antigens. It has generated widespread interest in oncology following several clinical successes in patients suffering from chemorefractory B cell malignancies. Since CAR-T cell therapy is a novel treatment, it does not have a clearly defined protocol. However, a rough protocol for CAR-T cell production is outlined in this article. The manufacturing of clinical-grade CAR-T cells under Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) is a very critical step in CAR-T cell production. However, this step has also become a bioprocessing bottleneck that needs to be surmounted for CAR-T cell therapy to reach a global patient population. CAR-T cells have a wide-ranging application in treatment of cancer. The first trials on B-ALL patients were conducted at MSKCC with conditioning chemotherapy of cyclophosphamide only. In case of CML patients, CAR-T cells that target the IL-1RAP protein have demonstrated the ability to selectively target the quiescent CML stem cells in various preclinical studies. Apart from CML, CAR-T cells can also be used to treat Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). For example, CD7 targeting CAR-T cells have shown effective cytotoxic effect against AML.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Mohammad Afeef Shreya Bhattacharyya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-02 2022-05-02 12 2 114 140 Effects of extraction solvents on polyphenols content and biological activity of Ajuga iva extracts <p>Different solvent systems have been used for the extraction of polyphenols from plant material, however, the appropriate solvent system is more effective for extracting the total phenolic of any plant extract and evaluating the antibacterial activity is not determined yet. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine the most effective solvent for extraction and characterization of polyphenols as well as antibacterial activity of the aerial parts <em>Ajuga iva</em> extracts. The Soxhlet method was devised to extract polyphenols from aerials parts of <em>Ajuga iva</em> powders, for this matter, three different solvents were used In order to analyze and quantify the result an in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the various plant extracts was carried out. The preliminary evaluation of the chemical composition made it possible to highlight the presence of some chemical groups. The quantitative determination of polyphenols is twofold, first the dichloromethanic extract contains the highest levels of polyphenols (3.38 mg GAE/g), second the ethanolic extract contains the highest levels of flavonoids (6.59 mg CE/g DW) and tannins (14.58 mg CE/g DW). On other hand, a remarkable antibacterial activity of some tested extracts was detected. The results showed that solvents with different polarities significantly affected polyphenol content and antibacterial activity.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Asmaa Belmimoun Khadidja Side Larbi Sarra Benoudane Saliha Belhadja Aicha Tir Touil Meddah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 12 2 102 113 Tick saliva antigen-based vaccines, disease protection and prophylaxis <p>This review emphasizes the immune responses to tick infestation and the administration of vaccine to save the life of man and his livestock. There are so many vaccines in operation in various parts of the world. These vaccines have been developed by using tick saliva toxins or recombinant antigens synthesized. This article explains the use of modern molecular tools such as genomics and proteomics in identification and search of new potent antigens which could prepare sizable defense against tick-borne pathogens. The present article also highlights explorations on salivary gland secreted molecules, genes and their expression for preparation of the highly efficacious targeted anti-tick vaccine. There is a need to search feeding inhibitors of ticks so that pathogen transmission can be blocked and easy disruption of enzootic cycle become possible. In addition, protein antigens from tick midgut must be searched to have a new multi-target vaccine to counter-attack tick infestation in various animal and human hosts.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nidhi Yadav Ravi Kant Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-26 2022-03-26 12 2 77 101 Understanding the genetic, molecular, and cellular basis of ageing as the biggest risk factor of Alzheimer's disease <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia. The disease is characterized by atrophy of brain tissue, with major physiological, molecular, and anatomical changes being observed in the hippocampus and entorhinal region of the temporal lobe. The risk of developing this disease increases with advancing age. Ageing is a chronological phenomenon wherein a considerable decline is observed in physiological functions due to the complex interplay of various exogenous and endogenous factors such as genetic construction, elevated levels of ROS, decrease in the telomerase activity, and epigenetic factors such as methylation of DNA, histone modification etc. The physiological and molecular changes in an ageing person especially in neurons overlap considerably with those observed during the progression of AD. This article highlights various factors responsible for ageing as well as AD with the latest review of literature. Understanding the factors that bring about the fated changes and how they are associated with the progression of disease can open new doors to bring about better treatment options and help cure an otherwise incurable disease.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Meena Yadav Prama Pandey Poonam Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 12 2 62 76 Biological activities of phenolic extracts from Artemisia herba-alba Asso grown in western Algeria <p>The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds from <em>Artemisia herba-alba </em>Asso<em>,</em> in order to evaluate their antioxidant and antibacterial activities, <em>in vitro</em>. The extraction of phenolic compounds was carried out by the maceration technique using absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, and distilled water. The quantification of polyphenols and flavonoids was performed using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the aluminum trichloride method, respectively. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the extracts was carried out by the FRAP, the DPPH• radical trapping, and the neutralization of the hydrogen peroxide technique. The lipid peroxidation was assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In addition, the antibacterial activity of the three extracts was tested on <em>Bacillus cereus </em>ATCC 11778, <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>ATCC 33862,<em> Escherichia coli </em>ATCC 2592<em>, </em>and<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>ATCC 27853 bacteria using agar diffusion and agar incorporation methods. The results showed that the methanolic extract was highly rich in polyphenols and flavonoids. Also, the reducing power CE<sub>50</sub> = 249.88 ± 6.07 µg/ml and the inhibition capacity of the DPPH• radical CI<sub>50 </sub>= 34.71 ± 0.96 µg/ml were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) than the ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Also, a highly significant inhibitory potential of lipid peroxidation was obtained with the methanolic extract (MDA = 66.97 ± 3.61 µmol/g tissue). However, a highly significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect was obtained from the ethanolic extract. A better antibacterial activity was obtained with the methanolic and ethanolic extracts.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Noura Ayad Rachida Benaraba Houari Hemida Fatiha Abdellah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-02-19 2022-02-19 12 2 46 61 Efficacy of essential oils as antiseptics on the productive characteristics of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori L. <p>The study aimed to test the efficacy of three essential oils (basil <em>Ocimum basilicum</em> L., lemon <em>Citrus limon</em> (L.) Osbeck, and thyme <em>Thymus vulgaris</em> L.) as disinfectants, including their positive and negative effects, on the biological and productive parameters of the silkworm <em>Bombyx mori</em>. Biological parameters: basil oil treatment at 2000 ppm the highest significant 5<sup>th</sup> instar larval weight and pupal weight were 2.226 g and 0.787 g. In addition, at the same concentration, recorded the lowest significant mortality percentage and 5<sup>th</sup> instar larval duration, were 0.787 g and 5.09% respectively. On the other hand, lemon and thyme oils at 4000 ppm come in the second place the same parameters, compared to the control and the chemical disinfectant. While it is equal to the concentration of 8000 ppm for the oils tested in all biological parameters with the control and chemical disinfectant. Economical parameters: basil oil at 2000 ppm and lemon and thyme oils at 4000 ppm had the highest significance for cocoon weights, cocoon shell weight, and silk productivity, which were 1.203 g, 0.220 g, 2.34 cg for basil oil, 1.139 g, 0.210 g, 2.367 cg for lemon oil and 1.265 g, 0.216 g, 2.397 cg for thyme oil, compared with control and disinfectant chemical groups (0.993 g, 0.157 g, 1.49 cg and 0.991 g, 0.160 g, 1.68 cg, respectively). The highest significant difference of cocoon percentages was seen with basil oil at 2000 ppm, compared to the other treatments.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Salwa S. Pasha Nagat H. Soliman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 12 2 37 45 About food safety, viruses and fish <p>Fish is considered an essential food in the human diet due to its nutritional qualities and is widely consumed around the world. The source of fish destined for human use and consumption is through capture fisheries and aquaculture activities. Although fish is a food of nutritional quality, it is also a food susceptible to deterioration and microbiological contamination, putting the health of consumers at risk. The different viruses are considered hazards of biological origin in food that cause various outbreaks of diseases through the consumption of fish, and products derived from their contamination in distinct phases of the food chain, through contaminated water and food handlers. Therefore, this document aims to provide an overview of foodborne diseases and causative agents, especially viruses, through a bibliographic review. In the production and commercialization of foods such as fish and products, it is considered that actions to control and prevent viral diseases, sanitary regulation and microbiological analysis tests should be involved, all in favor of the promotion and safeguarding of public health through the availability and consumption of safe food and water.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Alejandro De Jesús Cortés-Sánchez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-17 2022-01-17 12 2 22 36 Cytological and chromosomal damages induced by tartrazine and two classes (III and IV) of caramel food dyes <p>Food colors such as tartrazine (E102), ammonia caramel (E150c), sulphite ammonia caramel (E150d) are widely used in the food sector. These additives are thought to be a long-term toxicity source. The goal of our research is to emphasize the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the three food colors at various concentrations (0.5 %, 1 %, and 2 %) using <em>Allium cepa </em>test. The species is thought to be one of the best for assessing genotoxicity&nbsp; because of its low chromosomal number and lengthy chromosomes. The findings revealed that the three dyes have a cytotoxic impact, as seen by root growth inhibition after 120&nbsp; h of incubation. The three food dyes had a genotoxic effect, as measured by a decrease in mitotic index and an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations such as chromosomal bridge, stickiness, and vagrant chromosomes, at both concentrations 0.5% and 1%.&nbsp; At 2 %, &nbsp;the mitotic index was reported as &nbsp;0 and several cytological abnormalities (binucleate and micronucleated cells and fragmented nuclei) were noted.&nbsp; However, further <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> cytogenetic experiments treating cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the three food dyes using alternative test models (animals, cell lines) will be needed to better understand their mechanisms of action.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Meryem Nassar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-09 2022-01-09 12 2 11 21 Anti-fibrotic agents could be the game-changer for post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis treatment <p>More than 220 countries and territories are globally affected by the recent pandemic COVID-19 which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is possibility of third wave of this pandemic as per epidemiological and public health experts. Besides that post-COVID-19 complications are alarming matter to look upon. Post-COVID-19 complications include several symptoms like as persistent fever; cough; fatigue; headache; attention disorder; dyspnea; anosmia; ageusia; chest pain discomfort; various respiratory illness; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) etc., and here the things to worry about is the development of pulmonary fibrosis after COVID-19. In some COVID-19 patients, hyper-inflammation in the form of ‘cytokine storm’ along with dysregulated immune response, alveolar epithelial tissue injury and wound repair collectively cause this secondary pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, using anti-fibrotic agents e.g. pirfenidone, nintedanib and other natural compounds could be meaningful in these circumstances although their efficacy in treating COVID-19 is subject to more detailed laboratory research works. In this review article, we have discussed the progression of pulmonary fibrosis development which is triggered by COVID-19; probable solutions with anti-fibrotic agents including anti-fibrotic drugs, some well-known natural compounds, combined anti-fibrotic therapies; and the current challenges of this field.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Pallab Chakraborty Kaustav Chakraborty ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 12 2 1 10 Inhibition of Aspergillus VosA protein by lactic acid bacteria metabolites (in silico study) <p>In this work, we performed an <em>in silico</em> study using 3D structure protein of VosA, and analyzed the protein interaction via molecular docking using PyRx to test the inhibition efficacy of 15 metabolites compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria in conidia germination protein of <em>Aspergillus</em>. The antifungal docking findings revealed that these compounds showed good interactions and binding affinity against the target involved in conidia germination. The highest binding energy (-6.3 kcal/mol) was given by stearic acid. This interaction is due to the residue amines Ser and Phe. Palmitic acid also showed a good binding affinity with -6 kcal/mol. Lactic acid has not the same efficiency as palmitic, and stearic acid, which represented a value of -3.6 kcal/mol, the values recorded by cytidine was from -5 kcal/mol, which was also important compared to oxalic and acetic acid.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nora Laref R. Premkumar Sameer Quazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 12 2 524 535 Silkworm larvae (Bombyx mori) can learn cues associated with finding food <p>The present study investigated the ability of silkworm <em>Bombyx mori</em> (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae to learn. Silkworm larvae were trained to consume food that was placed on red paper; consequently they became attracted to red, rather than blue paper even in the absence of food. In contrast, untrained controls had no preference for either red or blue paper. These results suggested that silkworm larvae learned to associate red paper with food, and that they can discriminate colors.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Tomohisa Takahashi Takumi Hasegawa Yuichi Egi Katsuhiko Sakamoto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 12 2 519 523 Assessment of polyphenols contents, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Origanum majorana extracts <p>The Algerian flora contains many species of vascular plants, including aromatic and medicinal plants, which can be very used for the treatment of diseases and health care. <em>Origanum majorana</em> is an Algerian medicinal plant used in the traditional pharmacopoeia. This work was conducted to evaluate the total polyphenolic content, antibacterial effect, and antioxidant capacity of <em>O. majorana</em> extracts. The extraction was carried out using the aerial parts of <em>O. majorana</em> with water and methanol to produce the aqueous extract (Aq.E) and the methanolic extract (Met.E). The total polyphenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were estimated using colorimetric method. The antibacterial effect was evaluated by the method of disc diffusion. ABTS, DPPH radical scavenging, and reducing power were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. So, the results showed that the highest concentrations of polyphenolic amounts and flavonoids were recorded in the Met.E with values of 68.66 µg EAG/mg E and 11.71 µg EQ/mg E, respectively. Moreover, all extracts showed a good antibacterial effect against <em>B. cereus</em> with inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm, and moderate activity against <em>S. aureus </em>and<em> P. aeruginosa</em>. In addition, the Met.E showed the highest effect in case of DPPH and ABTS free radical (EC<sub>50</sub>=16.15±0.2 µg/ml and 19.66±0.56 µg/ml, respectively). This study demonstrated that the Met.E of <em>O. majorana</em> contains bioactive compounds that are related to potential biological activities, such as antioxidant and antibacterial effect.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Abderrahim Benslama Samira Daci Larbi Zakaria Nabti Hamdi Bendif Abdenassar Harrar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 12 2 509 518 Organ dependency variation of the chemical composition of Ziziphus lotus volatile fractions <p>The extended application fields of the essential oils keep them a subject of interest. In this study, we investigated the aerial part essential oil and the fruit essential oil of the wild plant&nbsp;<em>Ziziphus lotus</em>, collected from the southern region of Tunisia. These essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus showed an extraction yield of 0.013% and 0.0046% respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the samples using GC-MS/GC-FID revealed two distinct compositions. Apocarotenoid derivatives characterized the essential oil of the aerial part; the major compound was hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (23.2%) followed by geranylacetone (12.5%) and cis-hexenyl-3-benzoate (11.1%). While the abundance of fatty acid marked the fruit essential oil. The noticed major compounds were 2-pentadecanone (16.9%), dodecanoic acid ethyl ester (14.5%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (13.0%). Such chemical composition may explain the traditional use of&nbsp;<em>Ziziphus lotus</em>&nbsp;as a drug to treat various pathologies.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Touka Letaief Stefania Garzoli Elisa Ovidi Antonio Tiezzi Chokri Jeribi Manef Abderrabba Jamel Mejri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-06 2021-10-06 12 2 501 508 Antifungal and antioxidant activities of Artemisia herba-alba Asso <p><em>Artemisia herba-alba</em> Asso was used since ancient times as a painkiller of gynecological diseases and in the Moroccan folk medicine to treat chronic disease like diabetes, arterial hypertension. The genus of <em>Artemisia</em> was marked as a member of the family of <em>Asteraceae</em>. White wormwood was mentioned also on the list of the flora of Tell Atlas (Oran) subsector as an abundance species with 93 specimens. Chemical analysis of essential oils obtained from this plant by hydrodistillation, revealed the presence of different chemical species, contains santonin, lactones of sesquiterpenic acids. Flavonoids, coumarins, and tannins were found in extracts. In the most cases, there was no toxic effect observed on animals after receiving repeated or single doses of <em>A. herba-alba</em> Asso either in the form of extracts or essential oils. Essential oils, organic and aqueous extracts of the same plant have shown antioxidant properties against free radicals measured by DPPH, β-carotene-bleaching and metal chelating power tests. There is a great potency of this plant by interacting of its compounds with constituents of fungal cells; chitin, wall of cell, membrane ergosterol and eukaryotic nucleus, and by way of consequence disrupting their synthesis. It is well-known, that the hyphal growth of fungal pathogens was inhibited by sesquiterpenes lactones. This plant seemed potent in term of biological activities and can be used as potential alternative remedies for the treatment of many infectious and oxidative diseases.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Asma Boukhennoufa Souhila Benmaghnia Yamina Maizi Aicha Meddah Tir Touil Boumediene Meddah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-06 2021-10-06 12 2 493 500 Diversity and extracellular enzyme profiles of yeasts on organic and fungicide treated strawberries <p>Since yeasts can survive under variable environmental conditions using different food sources they have a wide distribution in nature. Fruits are suitable living spaces for yeasts and other microorganisms due to their high and different sugar contents. Strawberry fruit as well as other fruits are very sensitive to pathogenic fungi. Due to their residues on fruits, limitations on the use of fungicides have led to increased use of microorganisms with antagonistic effects as biological control agents. The biological agents to be used are selected mainly from the microorganisms found in the natural microbiota of the fruit. Therefore, in this study yeast biota on strawberry fruit collected from fungicide treated (Klorzon and Topas) and organic fields was determined using molecular identification methods. In addition, extracellular enzyme profiles of the identified yeast species were determined by the APIZYM-based system. There was no difference in the diversity of yeast species on strawberries collected from fungicide treated and organic fields, but the yeast density on organic strawberries was greater than fungicide treated fruits. The identified yeast species on fruits were determined as <em>Metschnikowia pulcherrima</em> (61.7%), <em>Hanseniaspora uvarum</em> (34.0%) and <em>Wickerhamomyces pijperi</em> (4.3%). <em>W. pijperi</em> yeast species was reported on strawberry fruit in our study first time. It was determined that <em>H. uvarum</em> and <em>W. pijperi</em> yeast species showed no α-glucosidase enzyme activity. All yeast strains showed industrially important β-glucosidase enzyme activity.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Tülay Turgut Genç Melih Günay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 12 2 480 492 A review on CRISPR-Cas9 and its role in cancer immunotherapy <p>Since the discovery of CRISPR, the field of Molecular Genetics has revolutionized and has opened so many different doors to improve molecular techniques and interpret the early microbial life forms. The diversity found within the CRISPR-Cas systems has led to its application in various fields like diagnostics, medicine and also has given rise to an interesting field of genome engineering. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Emanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna for their work on CRISPR-Cas9 and its application as a genome engineering tool. Scientists have been using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit genomes and cure various genetic diseases associated with mutations in the human genome. One such application is the use of CRISPR-Cas9 in cancer immunotherapy. The entire world has been known to be affected by the rapidly dividing cellular disease of cancer. Since cancer cells have different morphology, they are attacked by our immune system. Cancer cells possess the ability to camouflage themselves and avoid these immune responses and thereby proliferate and metastasize to a much greater extent. Scientists have been able to genetically engineer T-cells with the help of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing tool which has shown promising results in the course of immunotherapy. On the 4th of June 2021, in India, the first patient underwent CAR-T Cell therapy setting a milestone for future treatments. In this review, we aim to evaluate the potential and diversity of the profound CRISPR-Cas systems and the application of CRISPR-Cas9 in immunotherapy for refractory cancer.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Rashi A. Bhavsar Vishwa Maharajan Evan Joseph Salai S. Sumukhi Akshatha Banadka Kokila Srinivasa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-24 2021-09-24 12 2 458 479 Binding of the antibacterial drug clofoctol and analogues to the Cdc7/Dbf4 kinase complex. A computational study <p>Drugs targeting the cell division cycle kinase 7 (Cdc7) are actively searched for the treatment of different pathologies such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cancer. Cdc7 interacts with multiple protein partners, including protein Dbf4 to form the Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) complex which regulates DNA replication initiation. Cdc7 and its activator Dbf4 are over-expressed in some cancers. The antibacterial drug clofoctol (CFT), used to treat respiratory tract infections, has been shown to block Cdc7 kinase activity, acting as a non-ATP-competitive inhibitor, capable of arresting DNA synthesis in cancer cells. We have modeled the interaction of CFT with the DDK complex and identified four potential binding sites at the interface of the Cdc7/Dbf4 heterodimer: at T109 and D128 (Cdc7), V220 and I330 (Dbf4). CFT behaves as an interfacial protein-protein inhibitor of the Cdc7/Dbf4 complex, limiting drug access to the proximal kinase site. Six CFT analogues have been tested for binding to the kinase complex. Two potent binders were analyzed in detail. The CFT structure was modulated to replace the two chlorine atoms with hydroxyl groups. The empirical potential energy of interaction (ΔE) calculated with hydroxylated compounds points to a more favorable interaction with the DDK complex, in particular at D128 site with the compound bearing two <em>ortho</em>-OH groups. Our work contributes to the identification of novel DDK inhibitors.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Gérard Vergoten Christian Bailly ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-24 2021-09-24 12 2 446 457