European Journal of Biological Research <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> JBródka Publisher en-US European Journal of Biological Research 2449-8955 Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with nitrate reductase assay and microscopic observation drug susceptibility <p>The global increase in tuberculosis drug resistant which is a threat to its control, require low cost method of diagnosis and detection. Available conventional and molecular methods consume time, and are expensive for countries with high disease burden. Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA) and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) performance to directly detect tuberculosis resistance to four drugs was evaluated. The NRA (liquid and solid) and MODS performance of smear-positive sputum samples were evaluated; Sensitivities and specificities were compared with Proportion Method (PM). Sensitivity and specificity of liquid NRA (LNRA) were 90% and 98% (rifampicin), 81.8% and 100% (isoniazid), 88.9% and 98.1% (streptomycin), and 57.1% and 94.4% (ethambuthol). Also, the sensitivity and specificity for solid NRA (SNRA) were 69.2% and 98.3% (rifampicin); 100% and 100% (isoniazid); 88.9% and 95.2% (streptomycin); 70% and 80.6% (ethambuthol). Moreover, For MODS, rifampicin and isoniazid sensitivity and specificity was 100%, it was 100% and 98.1% for streptomycin, and 71.4% and 98.2% for ethambuthol. At day 14, the results available for LNRA, SNRA and MODS were 93%, 68.5% and 100% respectively. The agreement between LNRA and PM was 97% (RIF, INH and SM) and 90% (EMB). For SNRA, it was 93% (RIF), 100% (INH), 94% (SM) and 89% (EMB). While for MODS, it was 100% (RIF and INH), 98% (SM) and 95% (EMB). Direct NRA and MODS are sensitive, reliable and fast for antituberculosis drug susceptibility; they have potential to effectively and reliably detect drug resistant tuberculosis in the low resource countries.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Olutayo Israel Falodun Idowu Simeon Cadmus Obasola Ezekiel Fagade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-29 2020-11-29 11 1 34 44 Exogenous potassium nitrate alleviates salt-induced oxidative stress in maize <p>The effects of the exogenous potassium nitrate application on major antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic pigment content, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and free proline were investigated in salt-stressed (75 mM NaCl) maize genotype (ADA 9510). Plants were grown in growth chamber for ten days. After five days of applications (control, 0 mM NaCl), S75 (75 mM NaCl), potassium nitrate (3 mM KNO<sub>3</sub>) and S75 + potassium nitrate (75 mM NaCl + 3 mM KNO<sub>3</sub>), plants were harvested. The results showed that salt stress significantly decreased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and free proline contents were increased by salt stress. These results showed that salinity led to the oxidative stress and destruction of photosynthetic pigments in maize leaves. The exogenous potassium nitrate application, on the other hand, caused to the increased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoid, elevated level of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, and decreased malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and free proline content. This kind of changes may indicate that the exogenous potassium nitrate application activates the antioxidant defence system and counteract the oxidative stress. Thus, it may be concluded that the exogenous potassium nitrate application improves salt tolerance and encourage the growth of maize plants under salt stress at early seedling stage.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ali Doğru Ecenur Demirtaş ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 11 1 24 33 Molecular docking studies on binding specificity of 3,6- and 2,7-carbazoles with DNA duplexes <p>Molecular docking is a widely used computational technique used to find the probabilistic binding sites of drugs in the vicinity of macromolecules. The drugs produce their working effect only when they bind and interact with the target macromolecule. The potential drugs can only be identified by their relative binding affinities and corresponding binding modes. Availability of huge numbers of such drugs has made the estimation of their relative potency, a difficult task. In the present work, carbazoles (3,6 and 2,7) and their analogs were studied for their DNA binding abilities using molecular docking calculations. Since the docked ligands had planar structures, it allowed them to adopt crescent shape and thus minor groove binding with DNA was preferred by all. However, it was found that a single molecule (Mol-6) (2,7-carbazole) showed promising results with all the selected DNA sequences also its results were exactly verified with those in the reported literature and therefore it can be said that its in-vivo studies could possibly produce some exciting results. This study also revealed that DNA binding energies of 3,6- and 2,7-carbazoles followed the same trend as their thermal melting values.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Anwesh Pandey Manas Misra Anil Kumar Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 11 1 14 23 Beneficial effects of ascorbic acid on ivermectin repeated high-dose therapy in rabbits: biochemical and histopathological investigations <p>Ivermectin (IVM) is a lipophilic anthelmintic drug widely used for the control of internal and external parasites in both human and veterinary medicine. Conversely, overdoses of IVM are associated with resistance and efficacy problems. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated administration of a high dose of IVM alone or with combination of ascorbic acid (AA) in male young rabbits (<em>Oryctolagus cuniculus</em>) via biochemical and histological investigations. Twenty rabbits were divided into four groups (n=5) and treated for three consecutive weeks: Control group; IVM group (2 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously, 3 times a week); IVM + AAg (20 mg/mL) group and IVM + AAf (200 mg/kg of diet) group. IVM induced a disruption of hepatic biochemical parameters and lipid profile with a statistically significant&nbsp;(p &lt; 0.05) increase in glucose, ALT, AST, GGT, HDL-C and a significant decrease of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C in IVM group compared to control group. Co-administration of AA moderately improved those biochemical parameters. Histopathological changes following IVM treatment in liver comprised loss&nbsp;of normal hepatocytes structure, central vein dilation and portal vein congestion. The lung showed abnormal structure of intrapulmonary bronchus, dilated bronchioles and alveoli and congested pulmonary artery. Nevertheless, the AA treatment groups revealed significant improvement when co-administered orally with IVM. This study suggested that AA has a beneficial ameliorative role against toxic effects induced by repeated high-dose of IVM.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Makhlouf Chahrazed Khaldoun Oularbi Hassina Bokreta Soumya Tarzali Dalila Boukrid Asma Boulahia Meriem Daoudi Zerrouki Nacira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-21 2020-10-21 11 1 1 13 In silico molecular docking of selected polyphenols against interleukin-17A target in gouty arthritis <p>The binding of Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) to its receptor causes the release of chemokine which have an implication in the pathogenesis of gouty arthritis. Though, some synthetic drugs have been proved worthy as IL-17A inhibitors in the management of gout but they have been associated with a number of side effects. Polyphenols have been documented for numerous therapeutic applications. In spite of this, there are scarce data on the mechanism of action and protective potentials of polyphenolic against gouty arthritis. This present <em>in silico </em>study aimed to assess the inhibitory potentials and ADMET properties of selected polyphenols against IL-17A using molecular docking tools. The crystal structure of IL-17A was retrieved from the protein database, while the structures of polyphenolic compounds were retrieved from Pubchem. Drug-likeness of the polyphenols was assessed using DruLiTo. A total of 22 out of 26 polyphenols investigated passed the Lipinski drug likeness rule of five which were then docked with the active site of IL-17A using docking software, and the docked complexes were analyzed using LigPlot and protein-ligand profiler web server. The results showed that all the investigated polyphenols have appreciable higher binding affinity when compared to the standard drug (allopurinol) with pelargondin and catechin having the highest binding affinity (-7.5 kcal/mol). Furthermore, ADMET screening were carried out on the five compounds with the best hits. Conclusively, this <em>in silico</em> study suggests that these investigated polyphenols could serve as better replacements for synthetic drugs such as allopurinol in the management of gouty arthritis.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Haruna Isiyaku Umar Adeola Ajayi Sunday Solomon Josiah Tolulope Saliu Jamilu Bala Danjuma Prosper Obed Chukwuemeka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-02 2020-10-02 11 1 352 367 Antioxidant activity of extracts formulated from Citrus aurantium and Artemisia herba alba <p>Plants still present a large source of novel active biological compounds with different activities. The antioxidant activity of three extracts was evaluated by DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods. The formulated extracts were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and then confirmed by High performance liquid chromatography coupled with DAD detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed the richness of these extracts in phenolic compounds. Three major compounds, resveratrol (17.98%), kaempferol-glucoside (7.23%) and vanillic acid (10.64%) were detected in methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium peel, aqueous extract of <em>Citrus aurantium</em> L. leaves and ethanolic extract of <em>Artemisia herba alba</em> Asso respectively by HPLC-DAD. However, the ethanolic extract of <em>A. herba alba</em> achieved 50% of the anti-radical activity at a concentration equal to 0.8 mg/ml. A higher antioxidant activity measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power was marked in the same extract with an absorbance equal to 0.824. The ethanolic extract of the aerial part of <em>A. herba alba</em>, the methanolic extract of <em>C. aurantium</em> peel and the aqueous extract of <em>C. aurantium</em> leaves were considered as powerful scavengers of free radicals and can be incorporated into the pharmaceuticals preparations to treat many diseases.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Asma Boukhennoufa Souhila Benmaghnia Boumediene Meddah Aicha Tir Touil Meddah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 11 1 343 351 Estimation of post-harvest losses of Manfalouty pomegranate fruits <p>Weight loss considered one of the main causes of quality loss in pomegranate fruits during chain marketing. Therefore, this study was conducted on Manfalouty pomegranate (<em>Punica granatum </em>L.) in a private orchard in El Badary, Assiut Governorate, Egypt in 2017 and 2018 to define the various causes of losses during chain handing and estimate it. The fruits harvested at three periods early (September) mid (October) and late season (November). The total losses at harvest were 5.94%, 9.30% and 23.50% for early, mid and late season, respectively. The main cause of losses is due to cracked and infected pests. The total loss of fruits during chain marketing was highest in retail market in comparison with wholesale during early, mid and late season. The main causes of losses due to weight loss and shrinkage fruits. According to data dealing with storage pomegranate fruits at 5±1°C and relative humidity 85-90%, the highest fruit losses found in the third month and this losses due to fruit weight loss and internal chilling injury (brown discoloration) so the storage life of fruit should be two months.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Samya G. E. El-Orabi Amal Moustafa Hassan Ahmed Hassan Mansour ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 11 1 336 342 Heavy metals biosorption by urease producing Lysinibacillus fusiformis 5B <p>Biosorption is the ability of biological materials to accumulate heavy metals from wastewater through mediated or physico-chemical pathways of uptake. Urease producing bacteria have been hypothesized to have inherent bioremediation abilities. The aim of this research was to determine the potential of <em>Lysinibacillus fusiformis</em> 5B to biosorp Pb, Cr, Cd and Ni. The stock solution of Pb, Cr, Cd and Ni was prepared by dissolving 0.0157 g of Pb(C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>3</sub>O<sub>2</sub>)<sub>2</sub>, 0.057 g of K<sub>2</sub>Cr<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub>, 0.018 g of CdSO<sub>4</sub> and 0.026 g of NiSO<sub>4</sub> in 100 mL of dH<sub>2</sub>O respectively. <em>Lysinibacillus fusiformis</em> 5B was screened for the potential to utilise 5 ppm of the heavy metals using agar dilution method. Broth of <em>L. fusiformis</em> 5B was inoculated to 10, 15, 20 and 50 ppm of the heavy metals. The rate of biosorption was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) after 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. The biosorption % was determined by Beer Lambart’s equation. <em>Lysinibacillus fusiformis</em> 5B was able to tolerate 5 ppm concentration of all the heavy metals by showing visible growth on surfaces of nutrient agar Petri plates. Generally, there was an increase in biosorption rate as the days progress. After 35 days of incubation, the highest biosorption rate of 99.96%, 99.97%, and 99.94% were recorded for Pb, Cr, and Cd respectively at 10 ppm and 99.33% of Ni at 15 ppm. The results of this study showed that <em>L. fusiformis</em> 5B possess the capacity to biosorp Pb, Cr, Cd and Ni and can be developed as biosorption agent for these heavy metals.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Amina Musa Jibrin Oluwafemi Adebayo Oyewole Japhet Gaius Yakubu Aisha Hussaini Evans Chidi Egwim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-11 2020-09-11 11 1 326 335 Validation of Ganoderma lucidum against hypercholesterolemia and Alzheimer’s disease <p><em>Ganoderma lucidum</em> has been hailed as medicinal mushroom. Its effect on memory and learning related behavioral performance along with related protein markers has been evaluated using Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and hypercholesterolemic model rats in the present study. AD model rats were prepared infusing amyloid beta peptide into the right ventricles of the rats. Hypercholesterolemia was evoked feeding 1% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid with basal diet of the rats for 8 weeks. Hot water extract of <em>G. lucidum</em> was ingested orally (200 mg/kg bw) to the HC and AD model rats. Memory and learning related behavioral tests were performed using Barnes maze while protein markers (BDNF, SNAP2, PSD-95, VAchT) were detected using ELISA. Observed findings suggest hypocholesterolemic, lipid profile improving and enhanced cognitive performance of the <em>G. lucidum</em> fed rats. Memory and learning related protein markers also substantiate this fruition. Thus, therapeutic potentiality of <em>Ganoderma lucidum</em> in AD amelioration seems promising.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Mohammad Azizur Rahman Md Shahdat Hossain Noorlidah Abdullah Norhaniza Aminudin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 11 1 314 325 Pathogenesis of IL-6 and potential therapeutic of IFN-γ in COVID-19 <p>The elevated inflammatory cytokines suggest that a cytokine storm, also known as cytokine release syndrome (CRS), may play a major role in the pathology of pandemic Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) leading to cause Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction then death. However, there was a controversial efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of COVID-19 induced cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Novel therapies to treat COVID-19-induced CRS become urgent needed. One of the most common cytokine that showed to be critical in the COVID-19 is the IL-6 and this article discuss the pathogenesis of this cytokine in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Also, this article proposes to utilize interleukin-6 (IL-6) blockade and potential therapeutic effect of IFN-γ to manage COVID-19-induced CRS and discuss several factors that should be taken into consideration for its clinical application.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ahmed Hasan Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-28 2020-08-28 11 1 307 313 Effects of chlorpyrifos on ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands of Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis <p>This study investigated effects of chlorpyrifos on ultimobranchial (UBG) and parathyroid glands (PTG) of frog, <em>Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis</em>. Frogs were treated with chlorpyrifos for short and long term and sacrificed after 24, 48, 72 or 96 h in short term and after 5.10, 15 and 30 days in long term. Chlorpyrifos exposure provokes&nbsp;&nbsp; decrease&nbsp; in&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; serum&nbsp; calcium&nbsp; levels&nbsp; after&nbsp; 48 h which persists till 96 h. There is slight decrease in the nuclear volume of UBG cells and&nbsp; cytoplasm depict weak staining response after 72 h. After 96 h these changes are more pronounced. PTG of <em>Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis</em> exposed to chlorpyrifos exhibit no change till 96 h. Serum calcium decreases on day 10 after chlorpyrifos exposure which continue to fall progressively till 30 days. After 15 days chloryrifos exposure, nuclear volume of UBG exhibit decrease and follicular epithelium displays decrease in height. Follicular epithelium after 30 days chlorpyrifos exposure reduces to the extent that it becomes single layered. Few degenerating cells have been discerned. At this interval nuclear volume of ultimobranchial cells exhibits a further decrease. PTG of chlorpyrifos treated frog depicts increased nuclear volume of PTG at 10 and 15 days. The nuclei of PTG are hyperchromatic and the gland becomes compact at 15 days. After 30 days following chlorpyrifos treatment nuclear volume exhibits further increase. Also degenerating cells make their appearance. Calcium regulating glands UBG and PTG of frogs were adversely affected by exposure to chlorpyrifos which may disturb the physiological functions of the organism.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ajai Kumar Srivastav Shilpi Srivastava Abhishek Kumar Sunil Kumar Srivastav Nobuo Suzuki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-27 2020-08-27 11 1 296 306 Vitamins, omega-3, magnesium, manganese, and thyme can boost our immunity and protect against COVID-19 <p>A new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has been recognized as a cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19 disease. In the absence of stable treatments for COVID-19, the possibility that vitamins: B<sub>1</sub>, C, D, and E, omega-3, minerals (magnesium and manganese), and herb thyme may have unspecified effects on infection with COVID-19 would be considered. Various reports have revealed that vitamins B<sub>1</sub>, C, D, and E, omega-3, magnesium, manganese, and thyme may affect the human innate system, for example, thiamine may play beneficial roles in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV), treating megadose ascorbic acid can assist prevent cold and flu symptoms, vitamin D can decrease the risk of developing COVID-19, vitamin E has been evaluated against the influenza virus in mice, and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation has been efficient in reducing the severity and frequency of sickle cell rate. Magnesium may be effective in patients with a mutation in the interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase, as well as manganese associates with the metabolism of glucose and fats, vitamin C, and B, accelerating protein synthesis, endocrine regulation, stimulating hematopoiesis, improving innate function, and reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Moreover, thyme extract can have beneficial antiviral effects against human papillomavirus (HPV) and influenza A (IAV). The possibility that the vitamins B<sub>1</sub>, C, D, E, omega-3, magnesium, manganese, and thyme appear to affect the human innate system warrants further study, especially in light of the recent COVID-19 epidemic.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Afaf M. Hamada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 11 1 271 295 Determination of concentration of the pseudomycelles from fermentation broth via spectroscopy and Neubauer chamber <p>The present work presents an alternative technique to obtain the concentration of pseudomycelles as number of pseudomycelles/sample volume, obtained by Neubauer chamber, as function of absorbance from spectroscopy. Samples of broth from fermentation via bacteria <em>Streptomyces tsukubaensis</em> were analyzed, making it possible to obtain a linear relationship between the number of pseudomycelles/ sample volume and absorbance, with determination coefficient of 0.995. In addition, a morphological analysis of the unfermented pseudomycelles was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at the magnifications of 20, 2000, 5000, 10000 and 20000 x.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Alessandra Suzin Bertan Marco Aurélio Cremasco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 11 1 263 270 Effect of growth media on the early performance of Prosopis africana (Guill. and Perr.) Taub. seedlings <p>This study examined the performance of <em>Prosopis africana </em>seedlings raised under different growth media. The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design with three treatments (topsoil, mixture of topsoil and poultry droppings, and mixture of topsoil and cow dung). Each treatment was replicated 4 times and each replicate had 10 potted seedlings making a total of 120 seedlings. The seedling growth variables; heights (cm) collar diameters (cm), number of leaves data were collected every 3 days for 12 weeks. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means were separated using Duncan multiple range test at 0.05 significant level. The result showed significant difference (p=0.005) in the height of seedlings. No significant difference existed in the seedlings collar diameter (p=0.306) and number of leaves (p=0.957). The follow-up result indicated that there was no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) in the height of seedlings raised in mixture of topsoil and poultry droppings (Mean ± standard error =105.87±5.40<sup>a</sup>) and topsoil (105.18±4.27<sup>a</sup>). However, a significant difference (p&gt;0.05) existed between both treatments and mixture of topsoil and cow dung (86.36±4.90<sup>b</sup>). Seedlings raised in the mixture of topsoil and poultry droppings had the best performance. The study therefore, recommended raising<em> Prosopis africana </em>seedling with topsoil for reduced cost of production.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Paul U. Ancha Onyekachi Chukwu Caleb I. Ezeano Maryprecious A. Udekwe Francisca C. Iheme ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-12 2020-08-12 11 1 257 262 Evaluation of health risk in relation to geohelminths in dumpsites of Ondo Town, Nigeria <p>The study evaluated the contamination level of geohelminths and the health risk in two major dumpsites at Ondo town of Ondo State. One hundred and eighty soil samples were collected from randomly selected sites through the use of quadrant between May and July, 2018 from two locations. Soil samples were analyzed for the presence of helminth ova and larvae following standard procedures. The patterns of parasite prevalence in relation to soil physiochemical parameters were determined. 168 (93.3%) soil samples were positive after analyses for different parasite stages. Epe soil recorded higher prevalence of 88 (97.8%) and the sub-soil had higher number of parasites 94 (52.2%) than the top soil 74 (41.1%). Parasite types found included hookworm (<em>Necator americanus</em>) (36.7%), <em>Strongyloides stercoralis </em>(15.6%),<em> Ascaris lumbricoides </em>(28.9%) and <em>Trichuris trichuria</em> (18.9%). The mean soil temperature and pH were 27.9 ± 0.7°C and 6.0 ± 0.5% respectively. The presence of viable soil transmitted helminths (STHs) eggs/larvae in soil suggest possible active transmission and high rate of exposure to infective agents among the inhabitants. There is a need for health education on risk associated with STH infection in the environment and public investments on sanitation that is essential to, protect individuals, control geohelminths and other sanitary related infectious diseases.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Iyabo Adepeju Simon-Oke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 11 1 251 256 High level dietary inclusion of monosodium glutamate lowers daily sperm production and efficiency in cocks <p>In a 16-week feeding trial, an investigation was carried out with 240 sexually matured cocks of twenty 24 weeks of age to assess the daily sperm production (DSP) and sperm production efficiency (SPE) of cocks fed dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG) at varied inclusion levels (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 g/kg diet designated diets A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively). The cocks were weighed (1888.33 ± 44.10 kg) and allotted to the 6 treatment diets. Each treatment was replicated 5 times with 8 cocks/ replicate in a completely randomized design. At the end of the feeding trial, 2 cocks per replicate (i.e. 4 cocks per treatment) were humanely sacrificed and their reproductive tracts dissected. The testes were carefully sampled, weighed and processed for estimation of DSP and SPE using both histological and homogenate methods of analyses. Results showed that the inclusion of MSG at 1.25 g/kg significantly reduced the DSP under the two estimation methods (P&lt;0.05). The SPE was equally significantly lowered at 0.75 g MSG/kg diet and above when determined using the homogenate method. It was also observed that MSG at 1.00 g/kg diet and above lowered the DSP and SPE when determined histometrically. A high positive correlation was established between the DSP and the testicular volume of the cocks. However, the paired testicular sperm reserves were not significantly influenced (P≥0.05). Sperm reserves in both testicles of the cocks fed diets B and C were similar to the control. This study therefore, suggests that MSG has a potential to significantly reduce the reproductive potentials of cocks when administered in excess of 0.75 g/kg diet.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Olumuyiwa Joseph Olarotimi Olufemi Adesanya Adu Abosede Oluwakemi Olarotimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 11 1 240 250 Immunomodulation: a broad perspective for patients’ survival of COVID-19 infection <p>The pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is yet to be well understood. However, patients with the virus show clinical manifestations which are very similar to those of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. This and other scientific findings reveal that acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the main cause of death in most COVID-19 patients. A vital mechanism for the development of the ARDS is cytokine storm which arises from an aggressive uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response that results from the release of large numbers of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This review seeks to draw the attention of the scientific community to the possibilities of improving the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients based on the knowledge of altering the development of this hyper-inflammatory process by suggesting drugs that targets the implicated immune cells, receptors, cytokines and inflammatory pathways without having generalized effect on the entire immune system.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Covenant Femi Adeboboye Babayemi Olawale Oladejo Tinuola Tokunbo Adebolu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 11 1 217 224 Cytomorphological changes in the cerebral and ventral ganglionic neurosecretory cells during copulation in epigeic earthworms <p>In spite of hermaphroditism, most earthworm species reproduce by cross fertilization i.e. by the process of copulation of two mature partners. Mechanism of copulation in few earthworm species (<em>Lumbricus terrestris</em>) is known. However literature on neurosecretory control of copulation in earthworm is lacking. In the present study 30 pairs of conjugating earthworms of <em>Eisenia fetida</em> were collected from laboratory culture beds during 2016 of monsoon season. Cerebral and ventral ganglia of 10 pairs of conjugating earthworms and 20 pairs of post conjugation (2 hrs after separation, 4 hrs after separation) earthworms were fixed in Bouin’s fluid for cytomorphological studies on their cerebral neurosecretory cells. Earthworms (10 numbers) debrained through anterior transection of first five segments (brain present in 3<sup>rd</sup> segment) by sterilized paragon knife were studied to observe conjugation if any. Cerebral and ventral ganglia of 5 pairs of pre-conjugating earthworms were considered as control. Cerebral and ventral ganglia of earthworms displayed chiefly two types of neurosecretory cells such as A cells and B cells. The A cells are deeply stained AF-positive cells arranged in upper cortical tier beneath the perineurium and generally exhibiting process of axonal transport. The B cells, generally larger in size than A cells, are lightly or moderately stained with or without axonal transport and lie in between cortical A cells and central fibrous neuropile. In the cerebral ganglia the A cells outnumbered the B cells, while in the ventral ganglia the opposite is true. Debrained <em>E. fetida </em>survived but did not conjugate. Secretory dynamics in the cerebral and ventral ganglionic neurosecretory cells A and B were recorded in pre-conjugating, conjugating and post-conjugating earthworms. Absence of conjugation in debrained worms and exhibition of the same in earthworms with brain and its changes in neurosecretory profile clearly indicate involvement of cerebral neurosecretion in the phenomenon of conjugation in earthworm. Our result indicates probable involvement of cerebral neurohormone in the process of conjugation in <em>E. fetida</em>.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Dipanwita Banik Priyasankar Chaudhuri Anurag Bhattacharjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 11 1 207 216 Jamun seed and orange peel extracts protects effects of microcystin LR on serum calcium and phosphate of rats <p>Wistar rats were treated as Group A: Control; Group B: microcystin LR (MCLR); Group C: microcystin LR and jamun seed extract (MCLR+JSE); Group D: microcystin LR and orange peel extract (MCLR+OPE); Group E: orange peel extract (OPE); Group F: jamun seed extract (JSE). MCLR dose was 10 µg/kg body wt/day whereas OPE and JSE dose was 200 mg/kg body wt/day. Serum calcium and phosphate were analyzed on 15 and 30 day. Serum calcium of rat exposed&nbsp; for 15 day to MCLR; MCLR+JSE and MCLR+OPE decreased. Although there is little increase in levels of group C and group D&nbsp; but treatment with OPE and JSE is not able to completely restore decreased calcium levels caused by MCLR. After 30 day calcium decreased after MCLR; MCLR+JSE and MCLR+OPE treatment. Levels in group E and F remain unaltered. Levels in group C and D exhibit elevation as compared to group B which indicates that treatment with OPE and JSE recovered calcium. Serum phosphate decreased after 15 day in MCLR; MCLR+JSE and MCLR+OPE&nbsp; treated rats. Phosphate levels of group C (compared with group F) and group D (compared with group E) show decrease. After 30 day exposure to MCLR; MCLR+JSE and MCLR+OPE phosphate levels decreased. Levels of group C and D when compared with group B are increased. Phosphate levels of group C (compared with group F) and D (compared with group E) are decreased. This indicates that OPE and JSE treatment provoked some recovery of phosphate levels.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Babita Deep Srivastava Manish Srivastava Sunil Kumar Srivastav Makoto Urata Nobuo Suzuki Ajai Kumar Srivastav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-11 2020-07-11 11 1 198 206 In-silico study of some natural compounds used as antifungal agents against Candida albicans <p>Fungal diseases are very common these days, so there is a high need to design and develop new antifungal drugs that can counter these diseases. <em>Candida albicans</em> is one of the opportunistic pathogenic yeasts that can cause serious diseases such as oropharyngeal candidiasis, vulvovaginal (genital) candidiasis, and invasive candidiasis (candidemia). This article focuses on the in-silico evaluation of anti-candidal activity of some natural compounds like ajoene, allicin, curcumin, gingerol, nimbin, nimbolide, nimonol and 6-Shogaol. Binding affinity of these compounds have been determined against the most common targets in <em>C. albicans</em> viz. cytochrome p450, lanosterol synthase, serine/threonine protein kinase, squalene monooxygenase, sterol-14-demethylase and thymidylate synthase. PatchDock and FireDock web servers were used to carry out the docking studies. The proposed targets of ajoene, allicin, curcumin, gingerol, nimbin, nimbolide, nimonol and 6-Shogaol are sterol 14-demethylase, cytochrome p450, cytochrome p450, cytochrome p450, cytochrome p450, squalene monooxygenase, lanosterol synthase and squalene monooxygenase respectively based upon the binding energies obtained by the docking studies. This study opens new avenues in the usage of the natural compounds as potential antifungal agents.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ankita Srivastava Neelabh - ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 11 1 188 197