European Journal of Biological Research <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> JBródka Publisher en-US European Journal of Biological Research 2449-8955 Accumulation of heavy metals in soil: sources, toxicity, health impacts, and remediation by earthworms <p>Heavy metals pose serious threats to both individuals and the environment, and there is growing global concern over potentially harmful elements. Heavy metal contamination can have a significant impact on the soil ecosystem's functioning. This requires convenient, efficient, and beneficial remediation approaches. The “ecosystem engineer”, earthworms, can modify and enhance soil quality. The ability of earthworms to bioaccumulate metals in substantial amounts in their tissues makes them potentially beneficial as an ecological indicator of soil pollution. Vermiremediation is a new discipline of research in which earthworms are used to detoxify organically contaminated soils. Earthworms have an influential metabolic system, and their gut bacteria and chloragocyte cells play a significant role in their tendency to valorize and detoxify heavy metals. Remediation by earthworms can be considered sustainable, efficient, and ecologically beneficial. The present review provides a wide range of information on earthworms' appropriateness as prospective species for bioremediation and detoxification of toxic metal-contaminated soil to mitigate human health and environmental problems.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nishat Fatima Keshav Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-08-01 2023-08-01 13 3 129 143 Indigenous plant Cannabis sativa: a comprehensive ethnobotanical and pharmacological review <p><em>Cannabis sativa</em> (L.) is a plant indigenous to Central Asia and South-East Asia. It is widely used in ethnomedicines as an anti-inflammatory,&nbsp;antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, anticancer, antitumor, neuroprotective, anti-mutagenic, anti-allergic, and antibiotic. Numerous <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> investigations have already established these attributes of <em>Cannabis</em>. Numerous toxicological studies have demonstrated the dose-dependent toxicity of <em>C. sativa</em> against various pests. The exact identity of the phytoconstituents of <em>C. sativa </em>responsible for the observed biological effects and their mode of action at the molecular level is yet to be ascertained. This review provides a comprehensive update to the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, and toxicological profile of <em>Cannabis sativa</em>.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nilay Vishal Singh Vinay Kumar Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 13 3 114 128 Multidrug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from medical centers of Batna (north-east Algeria) <p>The emergence of resistant strains of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is a major public health problem mainly in hospitals around the world and in Algeria in particular. This work aims to assess the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in the University Hospital Center of Batna and the Hematology Unit of the Anti-Cancer Center using conventional standardized methods during a study period of four months. A total of&nbsp; 70 strains of <em>S. aureus</em> were isolated and their antibiotic susceptibility study showed significant resistance to β-lactam especially to penicillin (95.71%) and&nbsp; 61.43% to tobramycin. The methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) formed 30%. Resistant strains to macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B (MLSB) and aminoglycosides (KTG) classes presented 17.14% and 21.43% respectively. These results require a control plan by compliance with the hygiene conditions and the organization of the prescription of antibiotics and other molecular and epidemiological studies.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Manel Merradi Nessiba Kerriche Selma Kerriche Ahmed Kassah-Laouar Nouzha Heleili ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-02 2023-06-02 13 3 106 113 In vivo assessment of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Phlomis crinita polyphenols <p>The leaves of <em>Phlomis crinita</em> are traditionally used in Algerian medicine for the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. In order to find a potential application for this native species, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects were investigated on various <em>in vivo</em> experimental models, and the total phenolic compounds and flavonoid contents were determined. The carrageenan-induced paw edema method was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract <em>in vivo</em>, while the <em>in vivo</em> antioxidant effect was assessed by estimating oxidative stress parameters (MDA, CAT, and SOD). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of substances with high therapeutic values. <em>In vivo</em> anti-inflammatory studies show that plant extract has a significant and dose-dependent impact on the inhibition of edema formation. The maximum percentage inhibition value was 87.79% after 4 h at a concentration of 500 mg/kg. Moreover, the administration of the extract significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the livers of mice. It significantly (<em>p ˂</em> 0.05) increased CAT and SOD activities and significantly (<em>p ˂</em> 0.05) decreased the MDA level activity, compared to the control inflammatory group. Our findings support that <em>Phlomis crinita</em> can be considered as a promising source of therapeutic bioactive compounds.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Hanane Boutennoun Lilia Boussouf Nassima Balli Lila Boulekbache Makhlouf Khodir Madani Khaled Al-Qaoud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-04-24 2023-04-24 13 3 94 105 Toxigenic fungi and contamination by AFB1 in Algerian traditional foods markets <p>This work focused on the realization of a mycological and mycotoxicological study of certain foods manufactured in a traditional way (couscous and spice of <em>Capsicum annuum</em> known locally under the name of sweet hror) and marketed in the city of Bechar. The physico-chemical analyzes revealed that all the samples were poorly hydrated where the average values ​​of relative humidity ranged between 7.23% and 13.58%. For the pH, the values ​​varied between 5.22 and 6.95. The enumeration of the fungal flora indicated that the couscous samples (coarse and fine) represented a contamination rate of 2.92*10<sup>2</sup> and 1.71*10<sup>2</sup> CFU/g respectively. While, the sweet hror samples represented a higher contamination rate (4.68*10<sup>2</sup> CFU/g), with a clear dominance of the genera of <em>Aspergillus</em> (46.42%) and <em>Penicillium</em> (26.28%). Otherwise, the mycotoxicological analysis showed us that 78.55% of the <em>Aspergillus</em> isolates of the group (<em>flavus</em>-<em>parasiticus</em>) tested were producers of aflatoxins (B<sub>1</sub> and G<sub>1</sub>) and that 86.66% of the isolates of <em>A</em>. <em>ochraceus</em> and 40% of <em>Penicillium </em>species, were ochratoxin A producers. In addition, the detection of mycotoxins at the sample level revealed that 63.63% of couscous samples were contaminated with mycotoxins. While sweet hror was the most contaminated (78.57%). Furthermore, the quantification of AFB<sub>1</sub> by HPLC-FLD for 4 samples of sweet hror revealed only one contaminated sample (21.75 µg/kg). Generally, it can be admitted that the rate of contamination by AFB<sub>1</sub> was too high, which can be considered a real risk to human health.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ammar-Rachad Medjdoub Abdellah Moussaoui Houcine Benmehdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-04-24 2023-04-24 13 3 81 93 Potential utilization of industrial waste as feed material for the growth and reproduction of earthworms <p>The issue of managing organic waste such as animal waste and industrial waste has emerged as a result of the fast development in urbanization around the world. It can be hazardous to the environment and public health if these are not properly stored, collected, and disposed of. These biological wastes can be turned into nutrient-rich biofertilizers using the vermicomposting process. The bio-oxidative method includes the combined activity of earthworms and microbes. The pH, organic carbon, organic matter, and the C:N ratio of the various organic waste mixtures showed a declining tendency during this process but the content of nitrogen, available phosphorous and exchangeable potassium showed a rising trend as the vermicomposting time progressed. Maximum earthworm growth and reproduction were reported better in different feed materials prepared from industrial wastes. Therefore, the present review article is based on the knowledge of using earthworms to stabilize waste.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Anjali Singh Keshav Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 13 3 71 80 Mucosal membranes, their interactions to microbial infections and immune susceptibility in human hosts <p>This article presents mucosal immune defense in response to various pathogenic infections in different hosts including man. Internally, the mucosal layer (membrane) covers the respiratory, digestive, nasal, and urogenital systems and serves as a physical barrier against many groups of infections. The host pathogen's interaction with membrane receptors is highlighted in this article, as well as the commensal gut microbiota's protective function in directing both general and targeted immune defense. In order to combat numerous diseases of various types, this review emphasizes the importance of crosstalk between mucosal locations, mucosal adjuvant design, and antigen delivery mechanisms. Additionally, it denotes the function of inflammasomes, lipocalin 2, Muc2 hyaluronan, and probiotics in maintaining homeostasis, regulating the gut microbiota, and enhancing immunological protection against enteric infection and gastrointestinal inflammation. For novel potential vaccines that could activate innate and adaptive immunity in mucosal tissue, there is an urgent need to look for new protective antigens, delivery mechanisms, and mucosal adjuvants. In order to prevent the spread of infections that are drug-resistant, seek protection, and assure host immunological tolerance, this article emphasizes the necessity for new antigens in the construction of new vaccines.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ravi Kant Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-02 2023-03-02 13 3 41 70 Blocking IgE with L-glutamic acid analogs as an alternative approach to allergy treatment <p>IgE-mediated allergic diseases have increased in the last decades. The most prevalent allergens from these seeds are Ric c1 and Ric c3, isoforms of 2S albumin. These allergenic proteins cross-react with allergens from peanut, shrimp, fish, corn, gramineous, house dust, and tobacco. The usual allergy treatment employs antihistaminic, immunotherapies and, omalizumab (Xolair)-based anti-IgE therapy. However, antihistaminics relieve symptoms, and the high cost of omalizumab limits its use for continuous treatment. We propose an alternative immunotherapeutic approach, denoted “IgE-blockage” by L-glutamic acid or modified-glutamic acid. Six compounds, D-glutamic acid, L-glutamic acid, N-methyl-L-glutamic acid, N-acetyl-L-glutamic acid, N-(4-nitrobenzoyl)-L-glutamic acid, and N-carbamyl-L-glutamic, were tested as a blocker. To evaluate motor coordination and the sedative/hypnotic activity of L-glutamic acid, a rota-rod test and a thiopental sodium-induced sleeping test were used. The compounds, L-glutamic acid and L-nitrobenzoyl glutamic acid, were the most active compounds to block the interaction of castor allergens with IgE. These compounds also prevent cross-responses with allergens from food sources and inhalants that cross-react with them. In the sleeping test, the groups that received L-glutamic acid at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg had a sleeping time similar to the vehicle control group. No changes in the animals' behavior were observed and there was no difference between the L-glutamic acid groups and the vehicle control groups in the rota-rod test. L-glutamic acid and L-nitrobenzoyl glutamic acid can used as IgE blocker to prevent allergic diseases.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Débora Mothé de Campos-Mesquita Giliane Silva de Souza Marinete Pinheiro Carrera Arthur Giraldi-Guimarães Olga Lima Tavares Machado ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 13 3 31 40 Antidiabetic potential of mucilage fraction extracted from Astragalus gyzensis seeds <p>The objective of the current work is to extract a new mucilage fraction from <em>Astragalus gyzensis </em>Bunge. seeds, which are collected from the El-Oued province (septentrional Algerian Sahara) and evaluated for their antidiabetic potential. The mucilage fraction is obtained using hot water extraction followed by alcoholic precipitation of polysaccharides by cold ethanol (96%). The primary investigation was performed by describing the main structural features of the extract through colorimetric assays, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography analysis using two systems. Biological activity was also monitored by antidiabetic activity by testing the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes in vitro. The extraction yield was 20.69%. The chemical composition mainly consisted of 78.60±0.29% carbohydrates, among them 63.92±0.67% neutral sugar, 15.78±0.76% uronic acid, 8.08±0.04% proteins and 2.57±0.05% phenolic compounds. The results obtained by thin-layer chromatography analysis showed the dominance of mannose and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic bands expected galactomannans. The investigations highlighted the antihyperglycemic effect in a dose-dependent manner by the inhibition of the α-amylase enzyme (IC50=0.8±0.005 mg/mL). These factors make it suitable for the industrial application of dietary supplement fiber made for diabetic individuals.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Aicha Tedjani Zakaria Boual Mohamed Didi Ould El Hadj Touhami Lanez Hakim Belkhalfa Zainab El Alaoui-Talibi Cherkaoui El Modafar Slim Abdelkafi Imen Fendri Didier Le Cerf Pascal Dubessay Cédric Delattre Pierre Guillaume Philippe Michaud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-07 2023-02-07 13 3 18 30 Analyses of Omicron genomes from India reveal BA.2 as a more transmissible variant <p>In the current study, the phylodynamics and phylogenomics of Omicron variants are being examined to provide insight into their evolution. We analyzed 564 genomes deposited to the GISAID database from various states of India. A Pangolin COVID-19 Lineage Assigner tool was used to assign lineages to all retrieved genomes. Maximum likelihood (MLE) tree construction and Reduced Median Joining (RM) network were performed. For phylodynamic analysis, the basic reproduction number (R0) was estimated. A Maximum likelihood tree (MLE) confirms the separation of genomes into two distinct clades, BA. 1. and BA. 2. A very high reproduction number (R0) of 2.445 was estimated for the lineage BA.2. Telangana has the highest R0 value in the country, indicating a high prevalence of the BA.2 lineage. The construction of the Reduced Median (RM) network reveals an evolution of some autochthonous haplogroups and haplotypes, which further supports the rapid evolution of Omicron as opposed to its previous variants. Phylogenomic analyses using maximum likelihood (ML) and RM also reveal the likelihood of the emergence of sub-sublineages and novel haplogroups respectively. Due to the recombinant nature and high transmissibility of the Omicron virus, we suggest continuous and more widespread genome sequencing in all states of India to track the evolution of SARS-CoV-2.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ashwin Atkulwar Aakif Rehman Yashal Imaan Mumtaz Baig ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-05 2023-02-05 13 3 10 17 Serum creatinine and urea assays on Atellica® CH and Architect® ci4100: method comparison <p>Serum creatinine and urea are markers of renal function usually measured in conjunction. This study aims to evaluate the comparability of a new analyzer incorporated to our laboratory, Atellica® with the established analyzer, Architect ® ci 4100 in serum creatinine and urea assays. We ran 110 tests for creatinine and 107 for urea. In both analyzers, serum creatinine assay is based on the Jaffe reaction while urea measurement is based on the Roch-Ramel enzymatic reaction. Linear association between methods was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Methods comparability was assessed using Passing-Bablok and Deming linear regression. Differences between analyzers were evaluated using Bland-Altman plot. For serum creatinine, regression equations are Atellica = 0.9721 x Architect - 2.7282 (Passing &amp; Bablok) and Atellica = 0.8884 x Architect + 1.3456 (Deming). The mean difference between the two methods is -11.7 µmol/L as indicated by Bland-Altman plot. For urea, regression lines are expressed as Atellica = 1.0252 x Architect – 0.1609 (Passing-Bablok) and Atellica = 1.1424 x Architect – 0.9532 (Deming). Bland-Altman plot presented a mean difference of -0.1 mmol/L. These results could be described as a very good agreement between the two methods, the two analyzers could be used interchangeably.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Hind Zrikem Soumia Nachate Ibtissam Mhirig Saliha Chellak Abderrahman Boukhira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 13 3 1 9 Impacts of prolonged exposure to low concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cell cycle control and DNA repair <p>Although the toxicological profile of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is not fully illuminated, large quantities of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO<sub>2</sub>NPs) are now produced. In our study, we evaluated the cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on different cell lines (normal, cancer and DNA repair-deficient cells). MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity, γ-H2AX and 53BP1 assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity and G2/M assay was used to study the impacts of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cell cycle regulation. In this study normal and DNA repair-deficient cell lines were used to study the repair mechanism of titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced DNA damage. G2/M checkpoint maintenance was also evaluated. We demonstrate that prolonged exposure to low concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not induce significant cytotoxicity but induces significant genotoxicity, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DNA DSBs). Furthermore, this study demonstrated that DNA DSBs at heterochromatin region are ATM-dependent and DNA DSBs at euchromatin region are ATM-independent and DNA PKcs dependent. After exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles, we show that the activation of G2/M checkpoint is DNA DSBs dependent threshold as does checkpoint release. All in all, we showed that prolonged exposure to low concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not affect cell viability but causes DNA damage and cell cycle checkpoint adaptation which may lead to genetic instability.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nada El Zahed Andreas Kakarougkas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 13 3 339 351 Investigation of antibacterial and antioxidant properties of three medicinal plants from Gaziantep, Turkey <p>Current research aimed to reveal antibacterial and antioxidant properties of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of <em>Phlomis armeniaca</em>, <em>Echinophora tenuifolia</em> subsp. <em>sibthorpiana</em> and <em>Moringa oleifera</em> plants obtained from herbalists in Gaziantep. Extracts of <em>P. armeniaca</em>, <em>E. tenuifolia</em> subsp. <em>sibthorpiana</em> and <em>M. oleifera</em> plants have antibacterial effect at varying degrees against test bacteria. Both ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of <em>P. armeniaca</em> plant exhibited higher antibacterial activity than studied other plant extracts. It was also found that the antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentrations. Since antioxidant and antibacterial activities were observed in almost all of the tested plant extracts, it was concluded that <em>P. armeniaca</em>, <em>E. tenuifolia</em> subsp. <em>sibthorpiana</em> and <em>M. oleifera</em> plants could be natural sources of antioxidant and antibacterial.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sinem Aydin Mustafa Sümbül ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 3 330 338 Prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Kebbi state, Nigeria <p>Tuberculosis remains a global public health burden in low and middle-income countries. The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microbial strains in high-burden countries like Nigeria pose a threat to achieving the One health approach. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of rifampicin resistance in sputum specimens of patients in Kebbi State, Nigeria using the GeneXpert Assay. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study and was carried out in Kebbi, North-Western Nigeria among patients who were confirmed positive for tuberculosis infection and visited the designated health zones, for various local government areas within the state. Sputum samples were analyzed using the GeneXpert technique. Data entry was made using Microsoft Excel and analyzed with SPSS version 20. A p-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. The overall prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RR-MTB) was 5.8% (14/240). The majority of the study participants were within the age grade 31-40 years (8.77%) and male participants (7.2%) were preponderant in comparison to female participants (2.7%). There was a significant association between settlement and rifampicin resistance in the study (p=0.05). The results showed that drug-resistant tuberculosis is prevalent in Kebbi State with a higher incidence observed in the Zuru Local Government Area of the state as compared to previous findings. This shows that improving the prevention and control efforts of tuberculosis in the state with relation to adequate regulatory strategies and policy formulation is of paramount importance.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Victor Oluwatosin Olaosebikan Shuaibu Bala Manga Yusuf Kanya Danladi Augustine Chijioke Udefi Ayodele Isaac Adedokun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 13 3 320 329 Zika and SARS-CoV-2: neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative outcomes <p>Through the emergence of new viral infectious diseases, epidemics and pandemics have brought great impacts on public health in recent decades. In this review, we sought to understand the association between the neurological outcomes of two relevant infectious diseases, Zika and COVID-19. Zika can trigger neurological and ophthalmic damage in children born from infected mothers, as well as, Guillain-Barré syndrome, encephalitis, and myelitis in adults. On the other hand, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has great potential to trigger an inflammatory process in the optic nerve, with optic neuritis as the most reported pathology. Although Zika and SARS-CoV-2 infections are associated with different clinical manifestations, both may trigger similar pathogenic processes, through the induction of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines release, triggering neurological and ophthalmological damage in infected patients. Elements in common have been found in both infections, such as antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, and the production of CXCL10, a chemokine responsible for the activation of several cellular types (T cells, eosinophils, monocytes and NK cells) in which are responsible to the induction of a cytokine cascade in the body. Based on these last findings, we suggest that both infections have similar activation characteristics as well as common pathogenic mechanisms associated with central nervous system involvement.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Jenniffer Ramos Martins Felipe Emanuel Oliveira Rocha Vivian Vasconcelos Costa, Costa Felipe Ferraz Dias, Dias ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 13 3 307 319 Novel mutations of PCCA and PCCB genes found by whole-exome sequencing related to propionic acidemia patients <p>Propionic acidemia (PROP) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic deficiency caused by multimeric mitochondrial enzyme propionyl‐coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (PCC). PCC enzyme contains a and b subunits, encoded by the <em>PCCA</em> and <em>PCCB</em> genes that mutations in both subunits are related to propionic acidemia. About 50% of disease-causing variants have been found in <em>PCCA</em> and most mutations related to propionic acidemia are missense mutations. The present study involves three families that are suspicious to hereditary propionic acidemia syndrome. The first family has four, the second family has one, and the third family has two passed-away children. All these families were diagnosed with the same clinical conditions such as poor feeding, vomiting, hypotonia, and lethargy. In the process of finding and confirming the mutation, pathological tests and whole-exome sequencing and sanger sequencing were done. In order to pathological tests and whole-exome sequencing, this is the first report of three novel variants related to propionic acidemia: 1. Novel pathogenic homozygous NM_000532.5: c.503_505del: p.Glu168del mutation of the <em>PCCB</em> exon5 gene, 2. Novel pathogenic homozygous splicing NM_000282:c.1900- 1G&gt;A mutation of <em>PCCA</em> exon22 and exon21, 3. Novel compound heterozygous pathogenic NM_000532.5: c.503_505del: p.Glu168del and likely pathogenic NM_000532.5:c.539T&gt;C: P.F180S mutation of the <em>PCCB</em> exon5 gene. The study shows that <em>PCCA</em> and <em>PCCB</em> have a great role in hereditary propionic acidemia and the results of the present study may be of importance in genetic counseling and finding the best treatment of this syndrome.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sajad Rafiee Komachali Zakieh Siahpoosh Sara Rafiee Komachali Dor Mohammad Kordi Tamandani Mansoor Salehi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 13 3 294 306 Phenolic profile and biological activities of Aloe barbadensis (Miller) from western Algeria <p><em>Aloe vera</em> is widely used in conventional medicine in Algeria to treat various diseases. This study aims to evaluate the chemical composition and biological activities of <em>Aloe vera</em> collected from western Algeria. Two extracts of ethanolic (EEA) and aqueous (AEA) were used to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC was applied to determine the amount of 15 compounds they contain, while the antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method. The antimicrobial activity experiment was conducted against five selected bacterial strains. Finally, an <em>in vivo</em> study on Swiss albino mice was conducted to discover the toxicity using Lorke’s method and anti-inflammatory activity using the Carrageenan method. The EEA extract shows the highest total phenol content of 37.00±0.37mg GAE/g and total flavonoid content of 9.14±0.19 mg CE/g. The AEA contains hydroxybenzoic and benzoic acid with other ingredients (0.84 and 0.82 mg/g, respectively). The EEA contains 0.93 mg/g of benzoic acid. <em>Aloe vera</em> has antioxidant activity with IC<sub>50</sub> values equal to 0.821 mg/ml for EEA and 1.993 mg/ml for AEA. The AEA inhibits <em>E. coli and </em><em>S. aureus </em>with a bacteriostatic effect; EEA is the best inhibitor of <em>S. aureus and </em><em>S. mutans</em> with the bactericidal effect. <em>Aloe vera</em> is practically nontoxic (LD<sub>50 </sub>is 3800 mg/kg of the AEA and superior to 5000 mg/kg of EEA). The AEA gives the best inhibition of edema, 85.96% at (100 mg/kg). <em>Aloe vera </em>leaves are an important resource of polyphenols, which have interesting antioxidant power, and antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Firdaous Faiza Fedoul Boumediene Meddah Mohammed Larouci Aicha Tir Touil Yahya Merazi Yavuz Selim Cakmak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-02 2022-11-02 13 3 282 293 Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus extracts from Algeria <p>This study was conducted to examine chemical compositions, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of methanolic and aqueous extracts from aerial parts of <em>Juniperus oxycedrus subsp oxycedrus</em> growing in Mascara, Algeria. The quantitative assessment indicated that methanol extract was the most concentrated in phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents (167.77±5.12&nbsp;mg&nbsp;GAE/g&nbsp;DW, 90.56±2.23 mg QE/g DE and 110.21±2.38 mg CE/g DE respectively). The chromatographic analysis by HPLC showed quantitative differences in phenolic constutents, noting that Chlorogenic acid was the major compound of both extracts. Moreover, methanolic extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract when tested by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (IC<sub>50</sub>&nbsp;4.45±0.001&nbsp;μg/mL) and phosphomolybdenum (328.52±0.071 mg of GAE/g DW) assays. Furthermore, the <em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;anti-inflammatory activity showed a strong inhibition of albumin denaturation by the methanolic extract at different concentrations when compared to standard drug diclofenac sodium. These findings confirm the richness of Algerian <em>Juniperus oxycedrus</em> extracts in bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. These results are compatible with the use of the plant in traditional medicine.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Soumia Djellouli Khadidja Side Larbi Boumediene Meddah Abdelkrim Rebiai Aicha Tir Touil Pascal Sonnet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 13 3 271 281 Encapsulation effects of galactomannans combined with xanthan on the survival of two lactic strains under simulated digestive hostilities <p>Galactomannans are the main component of locust bean gum from the fruit of the carob tree, <em>Ceratonia siliqua </em>L. They are a reserve of polysaccharides, found in the translucent endosperm of the seeds. They are designated as the best gels with thickening capacity and are, therefore, widely used as a natural food additive (E410) in many food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. In this study, we aim to exploit this gelling property of carob galactomannans in the microencapsulation of lactic bacteria in order to protect them from the negative effects of simulated digestive conditions. Two beneficial bacteria are used: <em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus </em>LBRE-LSAS and <em>Bifidobacterium animalis </em>subsp. <em>lactis</em> Bb12. Their survival in the free state or encapsulated in pure carob galactomannan gel combined with xanthan, was determined after residence in simulated <em>in vitro</em> digestive conditions (gastric: pH 2, pepsin 3 g/l and intestinal: bile 0.3%: W/V, pH 6.5. The results obtained show that gel encapsulation of carob galactomannans combined with xanthan improves the survival of these two beneficial strains to simulated digestive hostilities. the loss under gastric conditions 36.79% (3.55 log CFU/mL) for the non-encapsulated cells and only 12% (1.2 log CFU/mL) for the encapsulated ones. However, galactomannans alone do not appear to be effective in keeping a minimum of 10<sup>6</sup> bacterial cells viable when confronted with the hostile conditions of the digestive tract where they will be called upon to exert their positive effect on health.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Abdallah Rahali Mounira Ariech Badreddine Moussaoui Ali Riazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-04 2022-09-04 13 3 262 270 In silico exploration of Lycoris alkaloids as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic whose adverse effects have been felt all over the world. As of August 2022, reports indicated that over 500 million people in the world had been infected and the number of rising deaths from the disease were slightly above 6.4 million. New variants of the causative agent, SARS-CoV-2 are emanating now and then and some are more efficacious and harder to manage. SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) has essential functions in viral gene expression and replication through proteolytic cleavage of polyproteins. Search for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors is a vital step in the treatment and management of COVID-19. In this study, we investigated whether alkaloids with antiviral and myriad other bioactivities from the genus <em>Lycoris</em> can act as SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. We conducted a computer-aided drug design study through screening optimal ligands for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro from a list of over 150 <em>Lycoris</em> alkaloids created from online databases such as ChEMBL, PubChem, ChemSpider, and published journal papers. The <em>In silico</em> study involved molecular docking of <em>Lycoris </em>alkaloids to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro active site, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity (ADMET) screening and finally molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of the most promising ligand-SARS-CoV-2 Mpro complexes. The study identified 3,11-dimethoxy-lycoramine, narwedine, O-demethyllycoramine and epilycoramine as drug-like and lead-like <em>Lycoris</em> alkaloids with favorable ADMET properties and are very likely to have an inhibition activity on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and may become potential drug candidates.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Fredrick Mutie Musila Grace W Gitau Magrate M. Kaigongi Dickson B. Kinyanyi Jeremiah M. Mulu Joseph M. Nguta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 13 3 238 261