European Journal of Biological Research http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="http://www.nauka.gov.pl/g2/oryginal/2016_12/c5c2fcb0c283a9eb3d1081020fd3178c.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href="http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/European+Journal+of,p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> JBródka Publisher en-US European Journal of Biological Research 2449-8955 Encapsulation effects of galactomannans combined with xanthan on the survival of two lactic strains under simulated digestive hostilities http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/604 <p>Galactomannans are the main component of locust bean gum from the fruit of the carob tree, <em>Ceratonia siliqua </em>L. They are a reserve of polysaccharides, found in the translucent endosperm of the seeds. They are designated as the best gels with thickening capacity and are, therefore, widely used as a natural food additive (E410) in many food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. In this study, we aim to exploit this gelling property of carob galactomannans in the microencapsulation of lactic bacteria in order to protect them from the negative effects of simulated digestive conditions. Two beneficial bacteria are used: <em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus </em>LBRE-LSAS and <em>Bifidobacterium animalis </em>subsp. <em>lactis</em> Bb12. Their survival in the free state or encapsulated in pure carob galactomannan gel combined with xanthan, was determined after residence in simulated <em>in vitro</em> digestive conditions (gastric: pH 2, pepsin 3 g/l and intestinal: bile 0.3%: W/V, pH 6.5. The results obtained show that gel encapsulation of carob galactomannans combined with xanthan improves the survival of these two beneficial strains to simulated digestive hostilities. the loss under gastric conditions 36.79% (3.55 log CFU/mL) for the non-encapsulated cells and only 12% (1.2 log CFU/mL) for the encapsulated ones. However, galactomannans alone do not appear to be effective in keeping a minimum of 10<sup>6</sup> bacterial cells viable when confronted with the hostile conditions of the digestive tract where they will be called upon to exert their positive effect on health.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7048634">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7048634</a></strong></p> Abdallah Rahali Mounira Ariech Badreddine Moussaoui Ali Riazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-04 2022-09-04 12 3 262 270 In silico exploration of Lycoris alkaloids as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/593 <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic whose adverse effects have been felt all over the world. As of August 2022, reports indicated that over 500 million people in the world had been infected and the number of rising deaths from the disease were slightly above 6.4 million. New variants of the causative agent, SARS-CoV-2 are emanating now and then and some are more efficacious and harder to manage. SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) has essential functions in viral gene expression and replication through proteolytic cleavage of polyproteins. Search for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors is a vital step in the treatment and management of COVID-19. In this study, we investigated whether alkaloids with antiviral and myriad other bioactivities from the genus <em>Lycoris</em> can act as SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. We conducted a computer-aided drug design study through screening optimal ligands for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro from a list of over 150 <em>Lycoris</em> alkaloids created from online databases such as ChEMBL, PubChem, ChemSpider, and published journal papers. The <em>In silico</em> study involved molecular docking of <em>Lycoris </em>alkaloids to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro active site, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity (ADMET) screening and finally molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of the most promising ligand-SARS-CoV-2 Mpro complexes. The study identified 3,11-dimethoxy-lycoramine, narwedine, O-demethyllycoramine and epilycoramine as drug-like and lead-like <em>Lycoris</em> alkaloids with favorable ADMET properties and are very likely to have an inhibition activity on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and may become potential drug candidates.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7041808">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7041808</a></strong></p> Fredrick Mutie Musila Grace W Gitau Magrate M. Kaigongi Dickson B. Kinyanyi Jeremiah M. Mulu Joseph M. Nguta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 12 3 238 261 Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with halophytic species Salsola vermiculata http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/619 <p>Endophytic fungi are known for their production of bioactive compounds with antibacterial and antifungal activity. In this study, an evaluation of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi isolated from <em>Salsola vermiculata</em>, a halophyte species collected from Chott el Hodna, M'sila (Algeria) was carried out. The eleven isolated endophytic fungi were identified as belonging to the genera <em>Alternaria</em> sp., <em>Aureobasidium</em> sp., <em>Phoma</em> sp., <em>Chrysosporium</em> sp., <em>Fusarium</em> sp., <em>Aspergillus</em> sp., <em>Papulaspora</em> sp., <em>Ulocladium</em> sp., <em>Humicola</em> sp. and <em>Pencillium</em> sp. The antimicrobial activity of endophyte isolates was tested against phytopathogenic fungi and pathogenic bacteria using the dual culture and the agar plug diffusion methods respectively. The higher percentage inhibition of 79% was obtained by the isolate <em>Penicillium</em> sp. 1 against <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f.sp. <em>ciccri</em>. All isolated endophytic fungi showed antibacterial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium, the greatest effect was obtained by <em>Fusarium</em> sp. against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> ATCC 27853 and <em>Bacillus cereus</em> ATCC 10876 with inhibition zones of 26.33 and 25.33 mm respectively. After the comparison of the means of the zones of inhibition, the isolate <em>Chrysosporium</em> sp. was the most active against all pathogenic bacteria with average inhibition zones of 20.55 mm.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7036033">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7036033</a></strong></p> Amina Zerroug Nouari Sadrati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 12 3 228 237 Broad antibacterial spectrum of endophytic fungi isolated from halophyte Suaeda fruticosa in Algeria http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/618 <p>The purpose of this work was to isolate and evaluate the antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi isolated from <em>Suaeda</em> <em>fruticosa</em>. Endophytic isolates were identified at the genus level. The genera<em> Fusarium</em> (33.33%), <em>Phoma </em>(26.67%), <em>Penicillium</em> (13.33%), and <em>Aspergillus</em> (13.33%) were more prevalent, while <em>Trichoderma </em>genus (6.67%) was less common. The isolated fungal endophytes were screened for their potential antifungal and antibacterial activities. Most isolates showed different levels of inhibitory activity against at least one of the pathogens. The best inhibition percentages were those obtained by <em>Penicillium</em> sp. 1; 74, 71, 65, and 47% against <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f.sp. <em>albedinis</em>, <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f.p. <em>ciccri</em>, <em>Fusarium solani</em> var. <em>coeruleum</em> and <em>Phytophthora infestans</em> respectively. Regarding antibacterial activity, the zones of inhibition ranged from 0 to 25.5 mm. <em>Fusarium</em> isolates and <em>Phoma</em> sp. 4 showed the greatest antibacterial activity, the highest activity was observed with <em>Fusarium</em> sp.5 and <em>Fusarium</em> sp. 1, which gave zones of inhibition of 25.5 and 22.5 mm respectively against <em>B. cereus</em> ATCC 10876. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to endophyte isolates than Gram-negative bacteria. From the results of the present work, it is possible to conclude that endophytic fungi isolated from <em>Suaeda</em> <em>fruticosa</em> could be a promising source of bioactive compounds and deserve further study.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7028278">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7028278</a></strong></p> Sadrati Nouari Amina Zerroug ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 12 3 216 227 Synthesis of nicotine derivatives and evaluation of their anti-bacterial activity http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/577 <p>Using a convergent synthetic method, a series of nicotine derivatives were synthesized from the basic materials nicotine-N-oxide in good yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral methods of analysis (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). Most of the target compounds were tested for antibacterial activity against five kinds of bacteria; the tested compounds exhibited varying levels of activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The results of bioactivities showed that some of the target compounds exhibited good antibacterial activities against <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em>, and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>. In addition, the broad spectrum anti-microbial action of nicotine derivatives developed in the present study may find immense applications in formulating new disinfection or decontamination strategies against widely spreading pathogens of clinical significance.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6990730">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6990730</a></strong></p> Djaafar Zemali Mohammed Ridha Ouahrani Salah Neghmouche Nacer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 12 3 207 215 Hyoscyamus muticus L. subsp. falezlez methanolic extract: phytochemical composition and biological activities http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/578 <p>This study aims to assess the phytochemical analysis and evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract obtained from the Algerian <em>Hyoscyamus muticus</em> L. subsp. <em>falezlez</em> leaves of Timimoun region. Methanolic extract of the plant contained the highest quantity of phenolics (148.00 ± 3.07 µg GAE/mg extract) and flavonoids (41.43 ± 0.90 µg QE/mg extract). The High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) results showed dominance in the phenolic compounds: orientin, vitexin 2-O-rhamnoside and n-OH-cinnamic acid. Eight metabolites were identified and quantified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) which included five fatty acids, one dicarboxylic acid derivative, one bicyclic hydrocarbon and one fatty acid derivate. The GC-MS analysis revealed that palmitic acid (32.56%), linolenic acid (21.34%) and linoleic acid (11.24%) were the three major components. The methanolic extract showed an antioxidant activity for DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and phenanthroline assays. The strongest antioxidant activity was obtained with phenanthroline assay (value of A<sub>0.5</sub> &lt;3.125 µg/mL). The antimicrobial investigation on thirteen microbial strains revealed that the methanolic extract showed low to moderate antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive and negative tested bacteria and no antifungal activity on all the tested fungi. This work suggests the use of leaves from <em>H. muticus</em> L. subsp. <em>falezlez </em>as a source of bioactive compounds with applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6757367">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6757367</a></strong></p> Sofia Ayari-Guentri Nadjette Djemouai Somia Saad Samira Karoune Rabéa Gaceb-Terrak Fatma Rahmania ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-26 2022-06-26 12 3 190 206 Synthesis of oxadiazole substituted new carbazole derivatives as antioxidant and antiurease agent http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/572 <p>Heterocyclic compounds containing nitrogen together with an oxygen atom in their structures are an important class of medicinal chemistry compounds due to their interesting diverse biological applications. Some compounds including carbazole ring, which are aromatic organic compounds in tricyclic structure, show biological activity in a wide spectrum. Oxadiazole compounds attract the attention of many chemists thanks to their antibacterial, antitumor, anticancer, anti-viral, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, antituberculosis and antioxidant properties. In this study, new oxadiazole substituted carbazole derivatives were synthesized and their antioxidant, antiurease activities were investigated. 9H-carbazole is a good starting material for the synthesis of carbazole derivatives. The antioxidant and antiurease activities of synthesized oxadiazole substituted new carbazole derivatives were investigated. Antioxidant activity methods such as DPPH (1,1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt) radical scavenging activities and iron reducing power capacities were used to determine antioxidant activity of the compounds. All synthesized carbazole compounds showed antioxidant and antiurease activity. While compound 4 shows the strongest enzyme inhibition activity, the least active compound was found 5. All tested compounds showed higher enzyme inhibition activity than thiourea. The highest and the lowest antioxidant activities were observed as compounds 3 and 6, respectively.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6612440">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6612440</a></strong></p> Nurhan Gümrükçüoğlu Bahar Bilgin Sökmen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-03 2022-06-03 12 3 181 189 Biological properties and polyphenols content of Algerian Cistus salviifolius L. aerial parts http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/567 <p>This study evaluated the <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant properties, antibacterial and antifungal activities and <em>in vivo</em> anti-inflammatory properties, and identifying the phenolic compounds in <em>Cistus salviifolius</em>. The methanolic leaf extract showed the highest antioxidant activity with 6.1±1.60 µg/ml IC<sub>50 </sub>value using DPPH<sup>·</sup> and 55.5±0.20 µg/ml using Reducing Power Activity. The study revealed that the butanolic leaf extract and the aqueous leaf infusion exhibited the strongest growth-inhibiting effect against all Gram positive and Gram negative strains tested, respectively, whereas the methanolic leaf extract showed the strongest antifungal activity against the yeast tested. The MIC value for the butanolic leaf extract was 4 mg/ml against <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. The pharmacotoxicological tests proved the safety of the aqueous leaf infusion, which exhibit a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, with a significant inhibition of the oedema development equal to 44.7% compared to 59.3% for the reference product diclofenac sodium. Methanolic extracts of the leaf and flower buds showed varied contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, and hydrolysable tannins; which were 228.4±11.4 mg GAE/g, 34.2±0.6 mg QE/g, and 36.9±2.6 mg TAE/g of the dry weight for leaves; and 241.1±5.4 mg GAE/g, 47.6±4.5 mg QE/g, and 22.0±1.3 mg TAE/g of the dry weight for flower buds, respectively. Analysis of the ethereal and butanolic leaf extracts using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method coupled with a Photodiode-Array Detector identified thirteen phenolic compounds, including ascorbic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and orientin.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6561505">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6561505</a></strong></p> Sihem Boubekeur Mohammed Messaoudi Chinaza Godswill Awuchi Olutosin Ademola Otekunrin Barbara Sawicka Samira Idjeri-Mecherara Sihem Bouchareb Aicha Hassani Majid Sharifi-Rad Samir Begaa Abdelkrim Rebiai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-21 2022-05-21 12 3 163 180 A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): current status and challenges http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/558 <p>In December, 2019 a new public health crisis threatened the world with the emergence of new zoonotic virus, the 2019 novel coronavirus. SARS-Cov-2 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 belongs to the family of coronaviruses named for the crown-like spikes on its surfaces. SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019), a contagious viral infection that attacks primarily throat and lungs causing pneumonia-like symptoms. It is speculated that SARS-CoV-2 seem to have come from a bat, but the intermediate reservoir is still unknown. This review will address SARS-CoV-2 structure, clinical features, SARS-CoV-2 genome and its different variant, diagnosis, and treatment and also gives a bird's eye view on the epidemiology and pathology based on current evidence.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6561397">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6561397</a></strong></p> Nilay Vishal Singh Harshita Kaushik Vinay Kumar Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 12 3 153 162 Antidiabetic effect of oral supplementation with Caulerpa racemosa powder http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/569 <p>Algae are known for their high nutritional value and the presence of bioactive compounds with anti-diabetic activity. In this study, the effects of oral supplementation with the whole powdered green alga <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> was assessed on biochemical and organic parameters in rat model of type 2 diabetes.&nbsp; Type 2 diabetes model (DM) was induced by high fat diet (HFD) (5.75 kcal/g) combined to streptozotocin injection (35 mg/kg). The DM-C500 and DM-C1000 groups were maintained on HFD and supplemented orally during four weeks with powdered <em>C. racemosa</em> at 500 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The DM-C0 group was fed with HFD without <em>C. racemosa</em> supplementation. All the experimental rats were maintained on HFD during the 30 days of experiment. <em>C. racemosa</em> at 500 mg/kg improved fasting glycaemia and glucose tolerance. The IPGTT test revealed a decrease (p&lt;0.05) in the fasting glycaemia recorded at the 120th min from day 0 (534 ± 38.88 mg/dL) to day 30 (326 ± 63.05 mg/dL). <em>C. racemosa</em> supplementation prevented liver lipid peroxidation in DM-C500 and DM-C1000 group (12.94 ± 2.20 and 10.48 ± 1.15 nmol MDA/g, respectively) compared to DM-C0 group (35.49 ± 2.30 nmol MDA/g). <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> at 500 mg/kg, and relatively at 1000 mg/kg, alleviated pancreatic, liver and renal tissue damages compared to DM-C0 groups which displayed injuries in their histological sections. <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> oral supplementation could represent a possible natural approach to prevent organic and metabolic disorders related to type 2 diabetes.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6560521">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6560521</a></strong></p> Nassima El Habitri Louiza Belkacemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 12 3 141 152 CAR-T cell: an epitome for the cure of hematologic malignancies http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/529 <p>There is an increasing reliance on modern cancer therapies on immunotherapeutic approaches such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapy (ACT), which includes tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), T cell receptor (TCR)-modified T cells, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). CAR-T cell therapy provides a unique approach to redirect T cells against distinct tumor antigens. It has generated widespread interest in oncology following several clinical successes in patients suffering from chemorefractory B cell malignancies. Since CAR-T cell therapy is a novel treatment, it does not have a clearly defined protocol. However, a rough protocol for CAR-T cell production is outlined in this article. The manufacturing of clinical-grade CAR-T cells under Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) is a very critical step in CAR-T cell production. However, this step has also become a bioprocessing bottleneck that needs to be surmounted for CAR-T cell therapy to reach a global patient population. CAR-T cells have a wide-ranging application in treatment of cancer. The first trials on B-ALL patients were conducted at MSKCC with conditioning chemotherapy of cyclophosphamide only. In case of CML patients, CAR-T cells that target the IL-1RAP protein have demonstrated the ability to selectively target the quiescent CML stem cells in various preclinical studies. Apart from CML, CAR-T cells can also be used to treat Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). For example, CD7 targeting CAR-T cells have shown effective cytotoxic effect against AML.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6512287">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6512287</a></strong></p> Mohammad Afeef Shreya Bhattacharyya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-02 2022-05-02 12 3 114 140 Effects of extraction solvents on polyphenols content and biological activity of Ajuga iva extracts http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/566 <p>Different solvent systems have been used for the extraction of polyphenols from plant material, however, the appropriate solvent system is more effective for extracting the total phenolic of any plant extract and evaluating the antibacterial activity is not determined yet. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine the most effective solvent for extraction and characterization of polyphenols as well as antibacterial activity of the aerial parts <em>Ajuga iva</em> extracts. The Soxhlet method was devised to extract polyphenols from aerials parts of <em>Ajuga iva</em> powders, for this matter, three different solvents were used In order to analyze and quantify the result an in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the various plant extracts was carried out. The preliminary evaluation of the chemical composition made it possible to highlight the presence of some chemical groups. The quantitative determination of polyphenols is twofold, first the dichloromethanic extract contains the highest levels of polyphenols (3.38 mg GAE/g), second the ethanolic extract contains the highest levels of flavonoids (6.59 mg CE/g DW) and tannins (14.58 mg CE/g DW). On other hand, a remarkable antibacterial activity of some tested extracts was detected. The results showed that solvents with different polarities significantly affected polyphenol content and antibacterial activity.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6402081">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6402081</a></strong></p> Asmaa Belmimoun Khadidja Side Larbi Sarra Benoudane Saliha Belhadja Aicha Tir Touil Meddah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 12 3 102 113 Tick saliva antigen-based vaccines, disease protection and prophylaxis http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/550 <p>This review emphasizes the immune responses to tick infestation and the administration of vaccine to save the life of man and his livestock. There are so many vaccines in operation in various parts of the world. These vaccines have been developed by using tick saliva toxins or recombinant antigens synthesized. This article explains the use of modern molecular tools such as genomics and proteomics in identification and search of new potent antigens which could prepare sizable defense against tick-borne pathogens. The present article also highlights explorations on salivary gland secreted molecules, genes and their expression for preparation of the highly efficacious targeted anti-tick vaccine. There is a need to search feeding inhibitors of ticks so that pathogen transmission can be blocked and easy disruption of enzootic cycle become possible. In addition, protein antigens from tick midgut must be searched to have a new multi-target vaccine to counter-attack tick infestation in various animal and human hosts.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6386931">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6386931</a></strong></p> Nidhi Yadav Ravi Kant Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-26 2022-03-26 12 3 77 101 Understanding the genetic, molecular, and cellular basis of ageing as the biggest risk factor of Alzheimer's disease http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/556 <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia. The disease is characterized by atrophy of brain tissue, with major physiological, molecular, and anatomical changes being observed in the hippocampus and entorhinal region of the temporal lobe. The risk of developing this disease increases with advancing age. Ageing is a chronological phenomenon wherein a considerable decline is observed in physiological functions due to the complex interplay of various exogenous and endogenous factors such as genetic construction, elevated levels of ROS, decrease in the telomerase activity, and epigenetic factors such as methylation of DNA, histone modification etc. The physiological and molecular changes in an ageing person especially in neurons overlap considerably with those observed during the progression of AD. This article highlights various factors responsible for ageing as well as AD with the latest review of literature. Understanding the factors that bring about the fated changes and how they are associated with the progression of disease can open new doors to bring about better treatment options and help cure an otherwise incurable disease.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6323799">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6323799</a></strong></p> Meena Yadav Prama Pandey Poonam Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 12 3 62 76 Biological activities of phenolic extracts from Artemisia herba-alba Asso grown in western Algeria http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/539 <p>The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds from <em>Artemisia herba-alba </em>Asso<em>,</em> in order to evaluate their antioxidant and antibacterial activities, <em>in vitro</em>. The extraction of phenolic compounds was carried out by the maceration technique using absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, and distilled water. The quantification of polyphenols and flavonoids was performed using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the aluminum trichloride method, respectively. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the extracts was carried out by the FRAP, the DPPH• radical trapping, and the neutralization of the hydrogen peroxide technique. The lipid peroxidation was assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In addition, the antibacterial activity of the three extracts was tested on <em>Bacillus cereus </em>ATCC 11778, <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>ATCC 33862,<em> Escherichia coli </em>ATCC 2592<em>, </em>and<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>ATCC 27853 bacteria using agar diffusion and agar incorporation methods. The results showed that the methanolic extract was highly rich in polyphenols and flavonoids. Also, the reducing power CE<sub>50</sub> = 249.88 ± 6.07 µg/ml and the inhibition capacity of the DPPH• radical CI<sub>50 </sub>= 34.71 ± 0.96 µg/ml were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) than the ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Also, a highly significant inhibitory potential of lipid peroxidation was obtained with the methanolic extract (MDA = 66.97 ± 3.61 µmol/g tissue). However, a highly significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect was obtained from the ethanolic extract. A better antibacterial activity was obtained with the methanolic and ethanolic extracts.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6172855">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6172855</a></strong></p> Noura Ayad Rachida Benaraba Houari Hemida Fatiha Abdellah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-19 2022-02-19 12 3 46 61 Efficacy of essential oils as antiseptics on the productive characteristics of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori L. http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/533 <p>The study aimed to test the efficacy of three essential oils (basil <em>Ocimum basilicum</em> L., lemon <em>Citrus limon</em> (L.) Osbeck, and thyme <em>Thymus vulgaris</em> L.) as disinfectants, including their positive and negative effects, on the biological and productive parameters of the silkworm <em>Bombyx mori</em>. Biological parameters: basil oil treatment at 2000 ppm the highest significant 5<sup>th</sup> instar larval weight and pupal weight were 2.226 g and 0.787 g. In addition, at the same concentration, recorded the lowest significant mortality percentage and 5<sup>th</sup> instar larval duration, were 0.787 g and 5.09% respectively. On the other hand, lemon and thyme oils at 4000 ppm come in the second place the same parameters, compared to the control and the chemical disinfectant. While it is equal to the concentration of 8000 ppm for the oils tested in all biological parameters with the control and chemical disinfectant. Economical parameters: basil oil at 2000 ppm and lemon and thyme oils at 4000 ppm had the highest significance for cocoon weights, cocoon shell weight, and silk productivity, which were 1.203 g, 0.220 g, 2.34 cg for basil oil, 1.139 g, 0.210 g, 2.367 cg for lemon oil and 1.265 g, 0.216 g, 2.397 cg for thyme oil, compared with control and disinfectant chemical groups (0.993 g, 0.157 g, 1.49 cg and 0.991 g, 0.160 g, 1.68 cg, respectively). The highest significant difference of cocoon percentages was seen with basil oil at 2000 ppm, compared to the other treatments.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5906591">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5906591</a></strong></p> Salwa S. Pasha Nagat H. Soliman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 12 3 37 45 About food safety, viruses and fish http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/542 <p>Fish is considered an essential food in the human diet due to its nutritional qualities and is widely consumed around the world. The source of fish destined for human use and consumption is through capture fisheries and aquaculture activities. Although fish is a food of nutritional quality, it is also a food susceptible to deterioration and microbiological contamination, putting the health of consumers at risk. The different viruses are considered hazards of biological origin in food that cause various outbreaks of diseases through the consumption of fish, and products derived from their contamination in distinct phases of the food chain, through contaminated water and food handlers. Therefore, this document aims to provide an overview of foodborne diseases and causative agents, especially viruses, through a bibliographic review. In the production and commercialization of foods such as fish and products, it is considered that actions to control and prevent viral diseases, sanitary regulation and microbiological analysis tests should be involved, all in favor of the promotion and safeguarding of public health through the availability and consumption of safe food and water.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5865046">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5865046</a></strong></p> Alejandro De Jesús Cortés-Sánchez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-17 2022-01-17 12 3 22 36 Cytological and chromosomal damages induced by tartrazine and two classes (III and IV) of caramel food dyes http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/521 <p>Food colors such as tartrazine (E102), ammonia caramel (E150c), sulphite ammonia caramel (E150d) are widely used in the food sector. These additives are thought to be a long-term toxicity source. The goal of our research is to emphasize the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the three food colors at various concentrations (0.5 %, 1 %, and 2 %) using <em>Allium cepa </em>test. The species is thought to be one of the best for assessing genotoxicity&nbsp; because of its low chromosomal number and lengthy chromosomes. The findings revealed that the three dyes have a cytotoxic impact, as seen by root growth inhibition after 120&nbsp; h of incubation. The three food dyes had a genotoxic effect, as measured by a decrease in mitotic index and an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations such as chromosomal bridge, stickiness, and vagrant chromosomes, at both concentrations 0.5% and 1%.&nbsp; At 2 %, &nbsp;the mitotic index was reported as &nbsp;0 and several cytological abnormalities (binucleate and micronucleated cells and fragmented nuclei) were noted.&nbsp; However, further <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> cytogenetic experiments treating cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the three food dyes using alternative test models (animals, cell lines) will be needed to better understand their mechanisms of action.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5831912">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5831912</a></strong></p> Meryem Nassar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-09 2022-01-09 12 3 11 21 Anti-fibrotic agents could be the game-changer for post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis treatment http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/519 <p>More than 220 countries and territories are globally affected by the recent pandemic COVID-19 which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is possibility of third wave of this pandemic as per epidemiological and public health experts. Besides that post-COVID-19 complications are alarming matter to look upon. Post-COVID-19 complications include several symptoms like as persistent fever; cough; fatigue; headache; attention disorder; dyspnea; anosmia; ageusia; chest pain discomfort; various respiratory illness; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) etc., and here the things to worry about is the development of pulmonary fibrosis after COVID-19. In some COVID-19 patients, hyper-inflammation in the form of ‘cytokine storm’ along with dysregulated immune response, alveolar epithelial tissue injury and wound repair collectively cause this secondary pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, using anti-fibrotic agents e.g. pirfenidone, nintedanib and other natural compounds could be meaningful in these circumstances although their efficacy in treating COVID-19 is subject to more detailed laboratory research works. In this review article, we have discussed the progression of pulmonary fibrosis development which is triggered by COVID-19; probable solutions with anti-fibrotic agents including anti-fibrotic drugs, some well-known natural compounds, combined anti-fibrotic therapies; and the current challenges of this field.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5813126">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5813126</a></strong></p> Pallab Chakraborty Kaustav Chakraborty ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 12 3 1 10 Inhibition of Aspergillus VosA protein by lactic acid bacteria metabolites (in silico study) http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/487 <p>In this work, we performed an <em>in silico</em> study using 3D structure protein of VosA, and analyzed the protein interaction via molecular docking using PyRx to test the inhibition efficacy of 15 metabolites compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria in conidia germination protein of <em>Aspergillus</em>. The antifungal docking findings revealed that these compounds showed good interactions and binding affinity against the target involved in conidia germination. The highest binding energy (-6.3 kcal/mol) was given by stearic acid. This interaction is due to the residue amines Ser and Phe. Palmitic acid also showed a good binding affinity with -6 kcal/mol. Lactic acid has not the same efficiency as palmitic, and stearic acid, which represented a value of -3.6 kcal/mol, the values recorded by cytidine was from -5 kcal/mol, which was also important compared to oxalic and acetic acid.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5609996">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5609996</a></strong></p> Nora Laref R. Premkumar Sameer Quazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 12 3 524 535