European Journal of Biological Research http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="http://www.nauka.gov.pl/g2/oryginal/2016_12/c5c2fcb0c283a9eb3d1081020fd3178c.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href="http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/European+Journal+of,p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 2016 - 64%, 2017 - 56%</strong><br><strong>Google-based IF (2017): 0.586&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; h-index: 11</strong></p> JBródka Publisher en-US European Journal of Biological Research 2449-8955 In-silico study of some natural compounds used as antifungal agents against Candida albicans http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/282 <p>Fungal diseases are very common these days, so there is a high need to design and develop new antifungal drugs that can counter these diseases. <em>Candida albicans</em> is one of the opportunistic pathogenic yeasts that can cause serious diseases such as oropharyngeal candidiasis, vulvovaginal (genital) candidiasis, and invasive candidiasis (candidemia). This article focuses on the in-silico evaluation of anti-candidal activity of some natural compounds like ajoene, allicin, curcumin, gingerol, nimbin, nimbolide, nimonol and 6-Shogaol. Binding affinity of these compounds have been determined against the most common targets in <em>C. albicans</em> viz. cytochrome p450, lanosterol synthase, serine/threonine protein kinase, squalene monooxygenase, sterol-14-demethylase and thymidylate synthase. PatchDock and FireDock web servers were used to carry out the docking studies. The proposed targets of ajoene, allicin, curcumin, gingerol, nimbin, nimbolide, nimonol and 6-Shogaol are sterol 14-demethylase, cytochrome p450, cytochrome p450, cytochrome p450, cytochrome p450, squalene monooxygenase, lanosterol synthase and squalene monooxygenase respectively based upon the binding energies obtained by the docking studies. This study opens new avenues in the usage of the natural compounds as potential antifungal agents.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3911299">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3911299</a></strong></p> Ankita Srivastava Neelabh - ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 10 3 188 197 Cladistics analysis of Calycanthaceae on the basis of morphological and anatomical characters http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/281 <p>Cladistics analysis was carried out to find the correct phylogenetic relationship of the four genera of Calycanthaceae. Morphological and anatomical information from all aspect of the data were considered for the analysis. <em>Siparuna</em> <em>guianensis</em> (Siparunaceae) and <em>Cinnamomum</em> <em>malabatrum </em>(Lauraceae) were considered as out-group. Characters were selected mainly for reasonable argument of the similarity. Character-state transformation and discrimination of the genera were decided based upon the out-group comparison method. PAUP* (ver. 4.0) program was used for the dataset analysis and to make phylogenetic tree. The genera split into two separate genera <em>Idiospermum</em> + <em>Chimonanthus</em> and <em>Sinocalycanthus </em>+ <em>Calycanthus</em>. <em>Chimonanthus</em> + <em>Idiospermum</em> are supported strict consensus tree with f-value calculation. Furthermore, <em>Sinocalycanthus </em>and <em>Calycanthus </em>are separated genera. Therefore, Calycanthaceae be redefined wide circumscriptions of the characters. The detailed investigation of the cladistics analysis revealed that the <em>Sinocalycanthus</em> and <em>Calycanthus</em> are the sole genus.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3908965">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3908965</a></strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Calycanthaceae, Characters and characters state, Cladistics, Out-group, Phylogeny</p> Niroj Paudel Kweon Heo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10 3 182 187 Understanding the phenomena of extraction of essential oils by the microwave accelerated distillation process: case of the Washington Navel variety http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/272 <p>In this study, two techniques Hydrodistillation (HD) and Microwave-accelerated distillation (MAD), was used to extract essential oils (EOs), from the peels of citrus fruits Washington Navel (<em>Citrus</em> <em>sinensis</em> L. Osbeck) collected from Tipaza province, north Algeria during April 2018. The extraction yield and time of EOs were (0.28% and 180 min) using HD extraction and (0.27% versus 30 min) using MAD extraction. After using gas chromatography analyses (GC-FID) and (GC-MS), 21 aromatic compounds obtained and identified for both extraction approaches. On the other hand, and in order to better comprehension the extraction phenomena, two models of extraction processes were applied, The first one considers the existence of a single site with a constant speed ruled by the equation of the quasi-stationary state, whereas, the second assumes that there are two distinct sites: The first is part of the fraction easily accessible with a very high desorption rate k1 (fast fraction), the second contains the fraction that is difficult to extract, with a low desorption speed k2 (slow fraction). The results showed that, the application of the two sites model can describe accurately the used extraction methods in this study. The data from HD extraction modeling indicate that this method extraction is fast fraction (f equal 0.79), then MAD method (f equal 0.40).</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3881852">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3881852</a></strong></p> Leila Boutemtam Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem Mohammed Messaoudi Samir Begaa Adel Benarfa Mohamed Amine Ferhat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc 2020-06-06 2020-06-06 10 3 167 181 Assessment of in-vivo anti-diabetic and anti-diarrheal effects of Flemingia stricta Roxb. leaf http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/266 <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and anti-diarrheal activity of methanol extract of <em>Flemingia stricta </em>Roxb. (Fabaceae) leaf. In anti-diabetic study, the extract was administered to alloxan-induce diabetic mice at two concentrations (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) for acute (12 hours) and prolong treatments (15 days) and blood glucose levels of diabetic mice were monitored at intervals of hours and days throughout the duration of treatment. Antidiarrheal test was conducted by castor oil induced diarrhea and enteropooling as well as intestinal motility in mice at three different concentration (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight). Treatment of alloxan induce diabetic mice with the extract caused a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose level of the diabetic mice both in acute (12 hours) and prolong treatment (15 days) and it was determined that the <em>F. stricta</em> methanol extract at both concentration (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) showed the significant (P&lt;0.05) hypoglycemic effect in comparison to the standard drug metformin. In the case of castor oil induced diarrheal test, enteropooling test and gastrointestinal motility test, the extract of<em> F. stricta</em>&nbsp; at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg has given significant effect (P&lt;0.05) compared to the standard drug loperamide. But 400 mg/kg demonstrated the highest activity amongst the three doses. These results suggested that the methanol extract of <em>F. stricta </em>Roxb. possess promising anti-diabetic effect on alloxan-induced mice and significant antidiarrheal effect on castor oil induced diarrheal mice.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3839749">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3839749</a></strong></p> Md. Shahrear Biozid Mohammad Nazmul Alam Md. Jainul Abeden Md. Faruk Ahmad Ibtehaz Chowdhury Muzahidul Islam Sajib Md. Masudur Rahman Md. Rafikul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc 2020-05-22 2020-05-22 10 3 156 166 Leiodinychus orbicularis (C.L. Koch, 1839) in bat boxes in Poland http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/258 <p>The presented studies are the first one on the occurrence of mites in bat boxes and focuses on Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata). Investigation was carried out in Western Poland in October 2015. Guano was collected from 58 bat boxes occupied by 10 species of bats. Excrements from particular bat boxes were placed separately in string bags and transported to the laboratory. The extracted fauna was preserved in 75% ethanol and mites were identified with stereoscopic light microscope. The study revealed only one species of Uropodina mite on bat guano in the studied bat boxes, namely <em>Leiodinychus orbicularis</em> (C.L. Koch, 1839).</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3835917">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3835917</a></strong></p> Jerzy Błoszyk Tomasz Rutkowski Grzegorz Wojtaszyn Zofia Książkiewicz-Parulska Michał Zacharyasiewicz Agnieszka Napierała ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc 2020-05-20 2020-05-20 10 3 150 155 Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory, wound healing and anti-nociceptive drug http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/260 <p>The present investigation was designed to study the chemical composition of Algerian peppermint essential oil (PEO) as well as the <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> anti-inflammatory, wound-healing and anti-nociceptive properties. Twenty-three compounds were identified in the PEO with the main chemical component as menthol (53.29%). Also, PEO showed a high content of oxygenated monoterpene compounds (92.75%). Topical application of PEO at doses of 200 and 20 µL/kg significantly reduced the acute ear edema in 38.09% and 36.50, respectively. Histological observation confirmed that PEO inhibited the skin inflammatory response. In-vivo wound healing activity of the cream prepared from PEO (0.5% w/w) was assessed by circular excision wound model followed by histological examination. The topical administration of PEO cream showed a significant decrease of unhealed wound area rate between the 6th (1.67±0.14 mm<sup>2</sup>) and the 9th (0.49±0.22 mm<sup>2</sup>) days of treatment when compared with the vehicle (2.32±0.77 mm2; p&lt;0.05) and Madecassol® 0.1% creams (2.23±0.35 mm<sup>2</sup>; p&lt;0.05). The PEO reduced nociceptive behavior at all doses tested in the acetic acid-induced nociception test (p&lt;0.05). These findings support the anti-inflammatory, wound-healing and analgesic properties of PEO. We suggest that PEO is a promising candidate for use in skin care products with anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3831042">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3831042</a></strong></p> Sarah Kehili Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem Asma Belkadi Mohamed Amine Ferhat William N. Setzer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc 2020-05-16 2020-05-16 10 3 132 149 Screening of yeasts obtained from different fermented foods for their ability to produce pectinase http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/247 <p>In the present study, Citrus pectin was used for the production of pectinase enzyme by yeast isolates using submerged fermentation. Fifty yeasts were isolated from different fermented foods and screened for their producing ability. <em>Candida </em>sp. OG2 and <em>Candida tropicalis </em>strain AUMC 10275 were the yeast isolates with the best potential of pectinase production. Fermentation parameters such as incubation period, pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen source were optimized under submerged fermentation. The optimal conditions for pectinase production were found to be incubation time 48 hours, pH 6.0 and temperature 40°C. Citrus pectin best induced the production of pectinase while yeast extract/peptone (1:1) was the best source of nitrogen. Pectinase produced by <em>Candida tropicalis </em>strain AUMC 10275 was purified at 4.00 folds with a specific activity of 63.99 U/ml. The yeasts obtained from fermented foods have the ability to produce pectinase enzyme under optimized conditions and can be used for industrial purposes.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3828648">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3828648</a></strong></p> Folake Titilayo Afolabi Yusuf O. Shitta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 118 131 Understanding the epidemiology of COVID-19 http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/270 <p>COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 was reported in December, 2019 in Wuhan city of Hubei province, China, in people who had visited seafood market. Its symptoms were similar to pneumonia but its infectivity was very high. The main modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 were identified as spread by nasal droplets and oral-fecal route and COVID-19 was found to be infectious in incubation and asymptomatic period. Hence, by the time real potential of its pathogenicity was realized, it had spread to many regions of China, other Asian countries, European countries, United States etc. and by April 20, 2020, it had spread to 185 countries all over the world. By this time, China had contained the virus, due to strict social distancing measures, and there was decline in the number of positive cases but in many other countries, especially U.S. and European countries, the cases continued to rise. United States showed the sharpest rise in COVID-19 cases in April, 2020 and also reported the highest number of deaths from the disease. As most of the countries are facing first-wave of COVID-19 by April, 2020, there are fears of second-wave of COVID-19 as China plans to relax social distancing norms to resume business, other work etc. to combat economic losses.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3822115">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3822115</a></strong></p> Meena Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc 2020-05-12 2020-05-12 10 3 105 117 The first report of the coproduction of CMY-16 and ArmA 16S rRNA methylases in carbapenemase-ESBL producing Escherichia coli isolates http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/259 <p>The main aim of this work was to assess the occurrence and to characterize AmpC genes and to investigate the co-existence of 16S rRNA methylases and carbapenemases genes among the ESBL producing <em>Escherichia coli</em> strains. 180 <em>Escherichia coli</em> clinical strains were collected from the university hospital of Constantine located in the eastern part of Algeria. 42 ESBL-producers were phenotypically identified and also confirmed genotypically able to produce <em>CTX-M-15 </em>[n=33], <em>CTX-M-1 </em>[n=5], <em>CTX-M-14 </em>[n=1], <em>SHV-2 </em>[n=1], and two strains have been revealed producing the <em>bla</em><sub>OXA-48 </sub>genes associated with<em> bla</em><sub>TEM-1</sub>. Among the ESBL-producing strains three expressed additionally an AmpC phenotype which corresponded to the carriage of a <em>bla</em><sub>CMY </sub>gene shown by sequencing to correspond to <em>CMY-2</em> (1 isolate) <em>CMY-16</em> (2 isolates). The two <em>E. coli</em> isolates produce <em>CMY-16</em> that belonged to phylogroup D while the single <em>CMY-2</em> producing isolate belonged to phylogroup C. Antibiotic resistance of the aminoglycoside family by production of 16S rRNA methylases was detected by an end-point multiplex PCR assay which concerns genes coding for different 16S rRNA methylases (<em>rmtD, rmtA</em>,&nbsp;<em>rmtB</em>,&nbsp;<em>armA, npmA</em>, and&nbsp;<em>rmtC</em>). An <em>armA</em>&nbsp;gene was identified in 2 strains. This study shows for the first time the co-existance of <em>CMY-16</em> and <em>armA</em><em> genes with bla</em><sub>TEM-1 </sub>and <em>bla</em><sub>OXA-48</sub> producing <em>E. coli </em>strains.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3776651">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3776651</a></strong></p> Meriem Meriem Meziani Kaddour Benlabed Pierre Bogaerts Youri Glupczynski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 10 3 96 104 Laboratory diagnostic methods and reported outbreaks of anthrax in Ethiopia http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/254 <p>Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by <em>Bacillus anthracis</em>, a Gram-positive, non-motile, spore-forming bacterium. It is a globally distributed disease, having been reported from all continents that are populated heavily with animals and humans. The objectives were to review general laboratory diagnostic testing methods and reported outbreaks of anthrax in Ethiopia. Anthrax was second top zoonotic priority next to rabies and endemic in Ethiopia that may occur in May and June every year (Anthrax season) in several farming localities. Animal hosts acquire the disease through grazing, usually by ingestion or inhalation while there are three major routs of transmission: ingestion, inhalation and cutaneous. This review indicated that anthrax remains to be major public and animal health problem in Ethiopia. Although suspected cases of anthrax are reported from several districts, they are not well confirmed by laboratories. Prevention and control of anthrax in animals effectively reduces its impact on public health and the national economy. The control of anthrax outbreaks among domestic animals is primarily dependent on rapid identification and treatment of affected animals; enhanced surveillance for additional cases; implementation of control measures including quarantine, prophylaxis, vaccination and the proper disposal of dead animals with decontamination is critical.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3773896">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3773896</a></strong></p> Abebe Olani Fufa Dawo Matios Lakew ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 10 3 81 95 Comparative pollen morphology of Calycanthaceae for their taxonomic implication http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/257 <p>The pollen morphology of four species of Calycanthaceae is described based on the observation of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. All pollens are monad, large grain category. The pollen grain was elliptic with disulcate. Surface ornamentation is smooth. Pollen grains of each species are from the genus <em>Sinocalycanthus, Calycanthus, Chimonanthus</em> and <em>Idiospermum</em>. The basic shape of the pollen grains is elliptical. The pollen is spheroid in Calycanthaceae except in <em>Idiospermum</em>, which represent boat-shape. The circular shape was in polar views in <em>Chimonanthus </em>but equatorial shape in S<em>inocalycanthus. Idiospermum </em>and <em>Chimonanthus</em> were smooth exine with micro-perforation but rugose exine in <em>Sinocalycanthus</em> and <em>Chimonanthus</em>.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3763335">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3763335</a></strong></p> Niroj Paudel Kweon Heo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc 2020-04-23 2020-04-23 10 3 74 80 Enhance productivity and net economic return by intercropping sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under drip irrigation http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/263 <p>Intercropping represents ways of maximizing water use efficiency (WUE) for higher yields per unit of irrigation water applied. The field experiments were carried out at the Experimental Farm of Arab El- Awammer Research, Station, Assiut during the two successive growing summer seasons of 2017 and 2018, to study the effect of different irrigation regimes (120, 100 and 80% ETo) and intercropping systems (sole sunflower, sole common bean and intercropping sunflower and common bean) for enhanced productivity and net economic return under drip irrigation. Irrigation with 120% ETo treatment gave higher yield and its compounds and oil % compared to 100 and 80% ETo treatments for sunflower and common bean. The highest stem, head diameters and 100-seed weight and seed and oil yield produced with sole sunflower as compared with intercropping of sunflower with common bean which had the lowest values in both growing seasons. The highest values of IWUE (0.723 and 0.704 kg/m<sup>3</sup>) were obtained at intercropping under irrigation with 100% ETo. Values of land equivalent ratio of various intercropping systems were larger than one in the intercropping systems. Sunflower + common bean cropping system produced higher values of net return than sole sunflower and sole common bean. The highest net return (2709 US$/ha) were obtained when irrigated sunflower + common bean intercropping system with 120% ETo in the second season while the lowest net return (234 US$/ha) were obtained when irrigated sole sunflower with 80% ETo treatment in the first season.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3763279">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3763279</a></strong></p> Wael Hamd-Alla Nagwa Ahmed Mohamed Hefzy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc 2020-04-23 2020-04-23 10 3 57 73 Antifungal activity of Myrtus communis and Zygophyllum album extracts against human pathogenic fungi http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/238 <p>Fungal infections have been increasing in recent years due to a growing number of high-risk patients, particularly immunocompromised hosts. Currently, medicinal plants are known for their properties due to their essential oils and phenolic compounds. They have been empirically used as antimicrobial agents. So the composition of the phenolic extracts and essential oils of <em>Myrtus communis</em> and <em>Zygophyllum album</em> and their antifungal activity on&nbsp;<em>Candida albicans</em>,&nbsp;<em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em> fungal strains were studied. In this fact, essential oils from the aerial parts of the plant were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS, for the phenolic extracts, several extraction methods with a preliminary phytochemical study were applied.&nbsp;The oils showed high contents of α-pinene and cineol for <em>M. communis</em> and verbenone and caryophyllene for the<em> Z. album.</em> The MIC and minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity against <em>Candida</em> and <em>Aspergillus</em> strains. Results showed that <em>M. communis </em>and<em> Z. album</em> essential oil and phenolic extracts exhibited a significant activity against clinically relevant fungi, a significant antifungal activity of the two extracts studied (MCA and ZAM) was observed on <em>C. albicans </em>of these, two extracts, MCA was found to be most active with an MFC value of 25 mg/ml versus 100 mg/ml for ZAM. Nevertheless, the essential oils exhibited stronger antifungal activity than the phenolic extracts. The present study indicates that&nbsp;the two medicinal plants have considerable antifungal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3751202">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3751202</a></strong></p> Asmaa Belmimoun B. Meddah A. T. T. Meddah J. Gabaldon P. Sonnet ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-14 2020-04-14 10 3 45 56 Phycoremediation of water contaminated with arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from a mining site in Minna, Nigeria http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/251 <p>This study was designed to remediate water contaminated with heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium and lead) using two green macroalgal species, <em>Spirogyra</em> and <em>Cladophora</em>. The results obtained from this study indicate that both macroalgae can be employed to adsorb and detoxify any of the three heavy metals from aqueous solution. However, it was also discovered from the study that <em>Cladophora </em>adsorbed and detoxified more of the cadmium and lead than arsenic as the organism had removal efficiency for cadmium and lead as 88.78% and 94.85% respectively meanwhile for arsenic it was only 23.10%. On the otherhand however, <em>Spirogyra</em> adsorbed more of arsenic than cadmium and lead as the organism had a record of 82.76% of arsenic compared to the 28.97% and 47.43%absorption forcadmium and lead respectively. It is therefore concluded based on the results of the present study that reclamation and reuse of water from public or industrial wastewater, or even from water contaminated as a result of precious metal mining is a huge possibility through the application of phycoremediation, using different species of micro and macroalgae.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3735302">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3735302</a></strong></p> Olabisi Peter Abioye Basil Utazi Ezugwu Sesan Abiodun Aransiola Musa Innocent Ojeba ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 10 3 35 44 Production and optimization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from Bacillus megaterium as biodegradable plastic http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/243 <p>Among biodegradable plastics polyhydroxy alkanate and its polymers have received more attention than other biodegradable polymers because of their complete degradability, flexibility, water resistance and also the ease of production process. Polyhydroxybutyrate is one of the types of polyhydroxy alkanates that is seen as a storage granule in many microorganisms. In this study, <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> was prepared from Iranian microbial collection. Glucose and yeast extract were used as the main components of the medium in seed media 9 and 2.5 g/l and in fermentation medium 30 and 7.5 g/l respectively. GC-MASS and FTIR were used to identify the PHB produced. The results showed that the highest amount of biomass (0.221 g/l) and PHB (0.080 g/l) were obtained with glucose at 37°C and shaker speed of 150 rpm for 72 h incubation. The results of GC MASS and FTIR showed the production of PHB by <em>Bacillus</em> under investigation. Based on the mean of data on total cell growth conditions, the rate of cell biomass and PHB production in <em>B. megaterium</em> were 0.0869 and 0.0171 respectively. According to the results of the experiments, temperature had the greatest effect on biomass production and PHB production. The bioplastics produced by microbes are also highly degradable in the environment, and due to their specific chemical structure, they have been widely used in various fields of the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries and are likely to replace today's plastics in the near future.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3711400">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3711400</a></strong></p> Salman Ahmady-Asbchin Hassan Rezaee Moein Safari Pantea Zamanifar Davood Siyamiyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-03-15 2020-03-15 10 3 26 34 An overview of floral and faunal diversity in and around Barrackpore Rastraguru Surendranath College Campuses, West Bengal, India http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/256 <p>The present survey based study involves the qualitative diversity of flora and fauna. The diversity assessment was carried out at two campuses of Barrackpore Rastraguru Surendranath College. This extensive study reveals the presence of 256 floral species and 165 faunal species in and around college campuses. The huge faunal diversity is mainly due to high level of floral diversity, which establishes the area as resource-rich habitat with promising reservoir of species. This is the very first effort in exploring the natural wealth of Barrackpore Rastraguru Surendranath College campuses.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3695917">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3695917</a></strong></p> Monojit Ray Sandip Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-03-03 2020-03-03 10 3 11 25 Pseudomonas species from cattle dung producing extended spectrum and metallo beta-lactamases http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/237 <p>Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in livestock contributes to emergence of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens co-habiting the gastro-intestinal tract of animals. This study was to determine the Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (MBL) production in <em>Pseudomonas</em> species from cattle fecal samples. Cattle dungs were collected from the University of Ibadan Cattle Ranch and the <em>Pseudomonas</em> species isolated using <em>Pseudomonas</em> Base Agar with <em>Pseudomonas</em> CN Selective Supplement were identified using standard tests. Phenotypic detection of ESBL and MBL was by double disk synergy test and Ethylene Di-amine Tetra Acetic Acid Combined Disk Test respectively. Antibiotics susceptibility tests was done using the disc diffusion technique against ten antibiotics. A total of 144 <em>Pseudomonas </em>species were isolated and identified as<em> P. aeruginosa</em> (71.5%)<em>, P. fluorescens </em>(19.4%) and <em>P. stutzeri </em>(9.1%) and 19 (37.1%) produced ESBL including <em>P. aeruginosa </em>(15), <em>P. fluorescens </em>(2) and <em>P. stutzeri </em>(2) while, one (6.7%) ESBL <em>P. aeruginosa </em>produced MBL. All the ESBL producers were resistant to cefotaxime and trimethoprim; resistance of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> to ciprofloxacin was 93.3% and to ceftazidime was 80.0%, while it was 13.3% (colistin) and 6.7% (imipenem). The ESBL producing <em>P. fluorescens</em> were resistant to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim, likewise, the ESBL producing <em>P. stutzeri </em>showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim. The production of ESBL and MBL observed among the <em>Pseudomonas</em> species in this study with high level of resistance to some antibiotics portend public health risk, hence a need for caution in the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3630802">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3630802</a></strong></p> Olutayo Israel Falodun Isaiah Baba Musa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-01-29 2020-01-29 10 3 1 10 Ameliorating effect of quercetin against UV radiation-induced damage in Drosophila melanogaster http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/234 <p>Quercetin is a plant flavonoid found in various fruits, leaves such as tea, vegetables and has been extensively studied due to its antioxidative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-neurodegenarative effects. UV radiation is harmful for human being as it may cause several complications such as skin cancer. Fruit fly (<em>Drosophila </em>sp.) has long been used as an arthropod model for genetics related studies. In the present study, the protective effect of quercetin is evaluated against UV-C radiation induced damage using <em>Drosophila</em> <em>melanogaster</em>. Pre-treatment with quercetin (10 µM) recovered the shortened lifespan caused by UV radiation and has also increased eclosion rate and the dose of quercetin is lower than the previously reported doses of other flavonoids. Flies subjected to moderate dose of UV radiation showed distinct abnormal characters such as incomplete abdominal pigmentation, curly wings or outstretched wings, whereas quercetin pretreatment showed no such abnormal characters or mutant phenotypes.&nbsp; There is a considerable amount of change in the eclosed adult fly size, pupal size and pupal migration distance as well. Gel electrophoresis study of salivary gland DNA of <em>D. melanogaster</em> demonstrates the efficacy of quercetin in conferring protection&nbsp;to DNA against UV radiation-induced damage. Therefore, it can be concluded that quercetin may act as an effective protective agent against UV radiation-induced damage.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3588543">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3588543</a></strong></p> Susmita Majumder Mohna Bandyopadhyay Sandip Pal Dalia Mukhopadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 3 276 285 Treatment of facial aging with calcium hydroxyapatite - filling and lifting concept http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/230 <p>The face is organized in five different layers (skin, muscles, supportive ligaments, fat pads and bones), which are continuous and interconnected with each other from the scalp to the neck. As a result of aging, changes occur in all its tissues and structures, triggering a cascade of effects in the adjacent areas. Actually, the more it is known about the loss of volume, the better it is to establish the target spots for volume replacement, with consequent more natural- and harmonious-looking outcomes. However, the skin is the outer envelope of the face, which, in the natural process of aging, has a lower capacity to completely accommodate any underlying volume loss or displacement. The result is the formation of creases and folds due to skin sagging. To describe the effects of the injection of calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) targeting two objectives at the same time: the restoration of volume loss to compensate the changes in the tridimensional structure and the improvement in skin texture caused by the stimulus to collagen synthesis, thus reducing the sagging of soft tissues envelope. Owing to the mechanism of action of CaHA, its application can be done in two differentiated and little invasive ways so that these objectives can be reached simultaneously. This technique can provide safe, natural and long-lasting rejuvenating effects.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3569835">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3569835</a></strong></p> Marisa Gonzaga da Cunha Ana Lúcia Gonzaga da Cunha Meire Gonzaga Glaucia Luciano da Veiga Beatriz da Costa Aguiar Alves Fernando Luiz A. Fonseca Carlos A. Machado Filho ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 10 3 267 275 Soil mites (Acari) of natural areas of a former military training field in Olsztyn (Poland) http://www.journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/217 <p>Due to restricted public access to military training fields such areas are quite interesting places for conducting faunistic research that would be simply impossible in other terrains. The area examined in the present study was the former military training field in Olsztyn, with the adjacent Lasek Pieczewski and the valley of Skanda Lake. The major aim of the study was to evaluate the current state of the environment in the terrain of the former military training field and the adjacent areas. In this study mites from the suborder Uropodina and cohort Labidostommatina (Acari: Mesostigmata et Prostigmata) were used as a bioindicators. These mites are useful for this purpose because of their specific habitat preferences. The community of mites in the area under scrutiny contained 23 taxa, comparing to 34 species found in whole voivoideship, which is 68% of local species biodiversity. <em>Oodinychus ovalis</em> turned out to be the most numerous species (the specimens of this species constituted almost 38% of the whole community and the frequency per sample was 55%). The other quite numerous species found in the examined area were <em>Janetiella pulchella</em> and <em>Oodinychus karawaiewi</em>, which constituted over 30% of the whole community. Taking into account the number of species and their habitat preferences two most valuable areas were found: southern part of Lasek Pieczewski and Skanda Lake valley.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3534449">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3534449</a></strong></p> Milena Zduniak Jerzy Błoszyk Maciej Nowak Agnieszka Napierała ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-11-10 2019-11-10 10 3 245 258