European Journal of Biological Research <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><a title="ICV: 93.39" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>ICV 2016: 95.65</strong><br></a><strong>Acceptance rate: 2016 - 64%, 2017 - 56%</strong><br><strong>Google-based IF (2017): 0.586&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; h-index: 11</strong><a title="ICV: 93.39" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><br></a></p> TMKarpinski Publisher en-US European Journal of Biological Research 2449-8955 Pesticides and food safety in Africa <p>African countries have experienced nonconformance in the levels of pesticides for local consumption and export. Sometimes this leads to rejects and other forms of embarrassment from the importing countries. Economic challenge and lack of awareness heighten the overall cost of interventions in pesticide-related food safety management. For example, not a few of the infractions were a result of incorrect ways of pesticide application. The hazard accompanying chemical pesticide application has left open a window of biological alternatives which this review article seems to explore<strong>. </strong>The bio-alternatives, including green pesticides cancel out the adverse effect of residual chemicals on crops in farm and store and so make it more attractive.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Annabella A. Adewunmi Stephen O. Fapohunda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-22 2018-03-22 8 2 70 83 Diversity of inulinase-producing fungi associated with two Asteraceous plants, Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) and Pluchea dioscoridis (L.) growing in an extreme arid environment <p>Inulinases are potentially valuable enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of plant’s inulin into high fructose syrups as sweetening ingredients for food industry and ethanol production. The high demands for inulinase enzymes have promoted interest in microbial inulinases as the most suitable approach for biosynthesis of fructose syrups from inulin. Arid land ecosystem represents a valuable bioresource for soil microbial diversity with unique biochemical and physiological properties. In the present study, we explored the fungi diversity associated with the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of two desert medicinal plants namely <em>Pluchea dioscoridis</em> and <em>Pulicaria crispa</em> growing in the South-Eastern desert of Aswan, Egypt. A total of 180 fungal isolates were screened based on their ability to grow on potato dextrose agar medium supplemented with 1% inulin. The isolated fungal colonies were morphologically identified according to cultural characteristics and spore-bearing structure. In addition, the inulinase activity of the isolated fungi was examined spectrophotometrically. Among these, <em>Aspergillus terreus</em> var. <em>terreus</em> 233, <em>Botrytis</em> <em>cinerea</em>, <em>Aspergillus aegyptiacus</em>,<em> Cochliobolus australiensis</em> 447 and <em>Cochliobolus australiensis</em> exhibited high inulinase activity ranging from 5.05 to 7.26 U/ml. This study provides a promising source of microbial inulinase, which can be scaled up for industrial applications.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Doaa M. A. Khalil Mohamed S. Massoud Mostafa Abdelrahman Soad A. El-Zayat Magdi A. El-Sayed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 8 2 42 55 Optimization of kojic acid production conditions from cane molasses using Plackett-Burman design <p>Fungal synthesis of kojic acid has gained more interest in these days as an alternative way to chemical synthetic. The aspect of the microbial fermentation process is to develop a suitable culture medium to obtain the maximum amount of kojic acid using statistical methods. In this study; different selected three isolates of <em>Aspergillus </em><em>flavus</em> (No 1, 2 and 3) were screened for their ability to produced kojic acid and the isolate No 3 was the highest kojic acid producer one. The capability of <em>A. flavus</em> No 3 to produce kojic acid was improved using Plackett-Burman design. From ten different agro-industrial wastes cane molasses recorded the highest kojic acid productivity with 2.24 g/l<sup>-1 </sup>day<sup>-1</sup> and was the most effective parameter plays a crucial role in Plackett-Burman design. Maximum kojic acid production (24.65 g/l) by <em>A. flavus</em> (No. 3) obtained under the fermentation conditions: incubation temperature at 25<sup>o</sup>C, incubation time 9 days, pH 3, inoculum size 0.5%, shaking rate at 150 rpm and medium constituents: Cane molasses 60 g/l, yeast extract 7 g/l, KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> 2 g/l, ZnSO<sub>4</sub>·7H<sub>2</sub>O 100 µg/l and MgSO<sub>4</sub>·7H<sub>2</sub>O 1 g/l with regression analysis (R<sup>2</sup>) 99.45% and 2.33-fold increase in comparison to the production of the original level (10.6 g/l).</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Abdel-Naser A. Zohri Ghada Abd-Elmonsef Mahmoud Nermien H. Saddek Radwa Adel Hanafy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-22 2018-03-22 8 2 56 69 Pectin coating of titanium and polystyrene surfaces modulates the macrophage inflammatory response <p>Titanium has been used with success for bone anchoring of dental implants. However, when implant surfaces are exposed to the oral environment, the progression of peri-implantitis triggered by specific oral bacteria has been reported. Bacterial colonization of implants leads to prolonged immune cell activation and bone resorption. A new strategy to improve implant biocompatibility and prevent peri-implantitis is to develop pectin surface nanocoatings. These plant-derived polysaccharides are promising candidates for surface nanocoatings of titanium implants due to their osteogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the <em>in vitro</em> effect of nanocoating with plant-derived rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) on pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) induced by <em>Escherichia coli</em> LPS and <em>Porphyromonas gingivalis </em>bacteria. In the present study, two different types of surface materials, tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) plates and titanium (Ti) discs, coated with pectic polysaccharides, potato unmodified RG-I (PU) and potato dearabinanated RG-I (PA), have been examined. The inflammatory responses of HMDMs after <em>E. coli</em> LPS/<em>P. gingivalis</em> stimulation were investigated through gene expression measurements of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The results showed that PU and PA decreased expression of the proinflammatory genes tumour necrosis factor-alpha (<em>TNFA</em>), interleukin-1 beta (<em>IL1B</em>) and interleukin-8 (<em>IL8</em>) in activated HMDMs cultured on TCPS/Ti surfaces. In contrast, the effects on anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (<em>IL10</em>) gene expression were not significant. The results indicate that RG-Is should be considered as a candidate for organic nanocoatings of titanium implant surfaces in order to limit host proinflammatory responses and improve bone healing.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Anna Mieszkowska Justyna Folkert Bernard Burke Owen Addison Katarzyna Gurzawska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-21 2018-05-21 8 2 84 95 Effect of selenium on nutritive value of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) <p>Purslane (<em>Portulaca oleracea</em>) one of the auxiliary plants was traditionally consumed in many parts of the world for its nutritional and medicinal benefits. The nutrient components of purslane such as total protein, total carbohydrates and mineral content such as macro elements (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and micro elements (Fe, Cu, Pb and Zn) were estimated at different concentrations of selenium which treated in soil where the plant cultivated. The protein and carbohydrate contents of leaves as well as protein of stems increase with increasing the selenium concentration, while protein and carbohydrate of roots as well as carbohydrate of stems decrease with increasing Se concentration. The mineral content was also affected by Se concentration, Fe, Cu and Zn of leaves decreased with increasing Se concentration, while K, Ca, Mg and Na are directly proportional with Se concentration. In stems, Zn only is inversely proportional with Se concentration. In roots, Fe, Cu, Mg and K are inversely proportional with Se concentration, while Na, Ca and Zn are directly proportional. The findings of this study revealed that carbohydrates, protein and mineral contents of purslane can be affected and controlled by selenium concentration.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Khedr F. Gamal Hoda Mohamed Salama Shimaa A. Ismaiel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-05 2018-06-05 8 2 96 104 Histomorphological responses to aqueous crude leaf extract of Alafia barteri on prefrontal cortex, heart, kidney, liver and testis of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats <p>Phytonutrients present in <em>Alafia barteri </em>leaves include antioxidants which serves to protect cells and tissues against detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species and other free radicals. This research work was targeted at investigating the activities of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of <em>Alafia barteri </em>on the histology of the prefrontal cortex, heart, kidney, liver and testis of adult Sprague Dawley rats. Twelve (n=12) adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 170-200 g (4-6 weeks old) were used for this study; they were divided into 2 groups of six rats each. The control group A received 2 ml/kg normal saline and treated group B received 500 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of <em>Alafia barteri </em>for twenty eight days. The gross anatomical parameters of the selected organs and their histology were assessed. The gross anatomical and histological observation of the prefrontal cortex, heart, kidney, liver and testis revealed no visible distortion in <em>Alafia barteri </em>extract treated group when compared with control. Aqueous leaf extract of <em>Alafia barteri </em>thus has no deleterious effects on the histological profile of the prefrontal cortex, heart, kidney, liver and testis of the rats.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Adelakun Sunday Aderemi Babatunde Ogunlade Olunsegun Dare Omotoso ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-06 2018-06-06 8 2 105 111