European Journal of Biological Research <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><a title="ICV: 93.39" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>ICV 2016: 95.65</strong><br></a><strong>Acceptance rate: 2016 - 64%, 2017 - 56%</strong><br><strong>Google-based IF (2017): 0.586&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; h-index: 11</strong><a title="ICV: 93.39" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><br></a></p> TMKarpinski Publisher en-US European Journal of Biological Research 2449-8955 Resistance to ceftaroline - 2018 review <p>Ceftaroline is a new fifth generation cephalosporin, active mostly against Gram-positive cocci, e.g. <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (including methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>). It is used in treating acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, community acquired respiratory tract infections and methicillin-resistant <em>S.</em> <em>aureus</em> bacteremia. The main resistance mechanisms of bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics, including ceftaroline, are mutations in PBP2a, PBP3 and PBP4. Clinically significant resistance has been noted among both archived and newly-isolated strains in a laboratory test using serial passages. Ceftaroline-resistant strains have also been found in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis, ventilator-associated pneumonia and infectious endocarditis. Irresponsible antibiotic treatment using ceftaroline or other antibiotics (due to a possibility of a cross-resistance) can lead to the spread of ceftaroline resistance and, consequently, its loss of value.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Rafał Ślusarczyk Ada Bielejewska Arkadiusz Bociek Martyna Bociek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-03 2018-07-03 8 3 112 120 Sodium fluoride: suggestive role in wound healing and cell proliferation with respect to regeneration <p>Sodium fluoride is a naturally occurring toxicant. The most common sources of sodium fluoride are municipal water, toothpastes etc. The ever increasing exposure to sodium fluoride may affect various physiological processes including regenerative capabilities. The characteristic events of regeneration include wound healing followed by cell proliferation and differentiation to replace the lost structure or tissue. Lower levels of sodium fluoride may be enhancing wound healing and cell proliferation but higher levels are detrimental for both these processes. Sodium fluoride affects wound healing by altering the expression of various proteins like fibroblast growth factors 2 and 7, Twist1 protein, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 7, bone morphogenetic protein 7, Bcl-2, p53 etc. Sodium fluoride also influences cell division, migration and matrix synthesis by regulating the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 3, alkaline phosphatases etc. which are markers of cell proliferation. Excessive fluoride produces oxidative stress in the cells and leads to conditions like apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and even necrosis. Thus, high levels of sodium fluoride hamper the process of cell proliferation and induce apoptosis via caspase and JNK-mediated pathway. The aim of this review is to understand the role sodium fluoride plays during wound healing and cell proliferation and its correlation with regenerative capabilities in organisms.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Meena Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 8 3 131 137 Profile of major and emerging mycotoxins in sesame and soybean grains in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria <p>The spectrum of major and emerging mycotoxins in sesame and soybean grains from the six zones of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria was determined using Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 47 samples (24 sesame and 23 soybean were collected from farmers’ stores. Seven regulated mycotoxins in sesame and five in soybean including aflatoxin B<sub>1</sub> (AFB<sub>1</sub>), aflatoxin B<sub>2 </sub>(AFB<sub>2)</sub> and fumonisin B<sub>1 </sub>(FB<sub>1</sub>) were detected. However, concentrations were generally lower than regulatory limits set in the EU for raw grains with the exception of ochratoxin A (OTA) exhibiting a maximum concentration level of 23.1 µg kg<sup>-1</sup> in one of the soybean samples. This is the first report concerning the contamination of sesame and soybean in Abuja, FCT-Nigeria with the emerging&nbsp;mycotoxins addressed by recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion papers totalling 10 in number. These include beauvericin (BEA), moniliformin (MON), sterigmatocystin (STE), altertoxin-I (ATX-I), alternariol (AOH), alternariol methylether (AME) though at relatively low µg kg<sup>-1&nbsp;</sup>range. This preliminary data indicate that sesame and soybean might be relatively safe commodities in view of the profile of mycotoxins.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Stephen O. Fapohunda Toba S. Anjorin Michael Sulyok Rudolf Krska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-07 2018-07-07 8 3 121 130 Incidence of community acquired ESBL-producing bacteria among asymptomatic University students in Anambra State, Nigeria <p>This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of community acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria among asymptomatic students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, South-East Nigeria. A total of 102 non-duplicate strains of <em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> were isolated from fecal samples (n=273) collected from the participating students. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests to determine their antimicrobial resistance profile. Their multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indices were also evaluated.&nbsp; Screening of the isolates for possible ESBL production was carried out by disk diffusion test using cefotaxime and ceftazidime disks. ESBL-production by the resistant strains was confirmed using the double-disk synergy test. Most of the isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant, as all <em>K. pneumoniae</em> and <em>P. aeruginosa</em> strains (100%), and 98.4% of the <em>E. coli</em> strains, had MAR indices ≥0.2. A total of 22 ESBL-producing bacterial species were confirmed, and the frequency of&nbsp;<em>E. coli, K. pneumoniae</em> and <em>P. aeruginosa</em> isolates among the ESBL-producing bacteria were n=20 (90.9%), n=2 (9.1%), and n=0 (0.0%) respectively. The total number of ESBL-producing bacterial strains isolated accounted for 8.1 % of the entire sample population. Although this prevalence rate may not indicate an alarming situation, it is important that the proliferation of ESBL-producing bacteria in the community be contained, since a high incidence of ESBL-producing organisms will create significant therapeutic problems in the near future. There is therefore need to develop strategies to reduce their spread in the community especially through monitoring, surveillance and proper detection protocol.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Chidimma R. Chukwunwejim Peter M. Eze Nonye T. Ujam Isaiah C. Abonyi Chika P. Ejikeugwu Dominic O. Abony Charles O. Esimone ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-18 2018-07-18 8 3 138 147 Independent distribution of blood group types and two genetically determined traits in a female population <p>Certain traits in humans are known to be neutral in nature as they do not influence fitness of the individuals. Traits like ABO blood group, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) tasting and ear lobe structure are genetically determined and follow Mendelian pattern of inheritance. Genes deciding their expression are situated on separate chromosomes and therefore would be certainly following independent assortment during gametogenesis. Data regarding association of these traits were collected from human female subjects to test whether blood group types show their dependency with other two features. An analysis in this regard clearly indicated that there exist no association between blood group type and PTC tasting and also between blood group and ear lobe structure.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Arvind Kumar Singh Palmo Yangchen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-18 2018-07-18 8 3 148 152 Achillea millefolium L. subsp. millefolium essential oil’s antifungal effect <p>This study was carried out with the aim of determining the antifungal effect of the essential oil isolated from <em>Achillea millefolium </em>subsp.<em> millefolium</em> plant against pathogenic fungi. In order to test the antifungal effect of the oil, an analysis was conducted on a total of 4 pathogen fungi which included <em>Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis</em> and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>, and the effect of the essential oil on the growth of these fungi was investigated. The essential oil of <em>A. millefolium </em>ssp.<em> millefolium</em> had varying degrees of effect on the tested fungi. The highest antifungal effect was found against <em>S. cerevisiae</em>; whereas the lowest antifungal effect was found against <em>C. parapsilosis</em>. Nystatin showed a higher activity than the essential oil of <em>A. millefolium </em>subsp.<em> millefolium</em> against the tested fungi. MIC values ​​of the essential oil against the tested fungi ranged from 1.25 μl/ml to 10 μl/ml. The results obtained indicate that essential oil of <em>A. millefolium </em>subsp.<em> millefolium </em>can be used as an alternative to antifungal agents such as amphotericin, ketoconazole, and fluconazole.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Sinem Aydın Emre Sevindik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-16 2018-08-16 8 3 153 156