European Journal of Biological Research 2021-07-31T15:15:18+02:00 Joanna Bródka Open Journal Systems <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> Use of nanomaterials for the immobilization of industrially important enzymes 2021-07-31T15:15:18+02:00 Zarish Fatima Sameer Quazi <p>Immobilization enables enzymes to be held in place so that they can be easily separated from the product when needed and can be used again. Conventional methods of immobilization include adsorption, encapsulation, entrapment, cross linking and covalent binding. However, conventional methods have several drawbacks including reduced stability, loss of biomolecules, less enzyme loading or activity and limited diffusion. The aim of this study is the evaluation of importance of nanomaterials for the immobilization of industrially important enzymes. Nano materials are now in trend for the immobilization of different enzymes due to their physiochemical properties. Gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, nano diamonds, graphene, carbon nanotubes and others are used for immobilization. Among covalent and non-covalent immobilization of enzymes involving both single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, non-covalent immobilization with functionalized carbon nanotubes is superior. Therefore, enzymes immobilized with nanomaterials possess greater stability, retention of catalytic activity and reusability of enzymes.</p> 2021-07-30T21:05:02+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethnomedicinal knowledge on Rai community of Ramprasadrai rural municipality, Bhojpur district, eastern Nepal 2021-07-27T14:52:55+02:00 Som Prasad Paudyal Ananta Rai Bishnu Dev Das Niroj Paudel <p>In Nepal, about 7000 vascular plants are noted. Some plants are medicinally important, so need to be explore for their medicinal value. Primary data for this research was collected by interviewing respondents. Secondary data was collected by reviewing early published research works on the internet. All herbaria were identified with the help of villagers, books, the internet, and by visiting of National Herbarium and Plant Laboratories (NHPL), Nepal. 35 plant species belonging to 28 families and 35 genera were documented as medicinal plants in the study area. Among these species, more plants were found to be herbs (51%) and the most useful parts were leaves (27%). Throat pain was the most common disease cured by more plant species (8 spp.). The most-used plant species were&nbsp;<em>Acorus calamus, Terminalia&nbsp;chebula, Zanthoxylum armatum, Swertia chirayita, Phyllanthus emblica, Ageratina adenophora, Drymaria cordata, Curcuma caesia, Amomum subulatum,</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Cinnamomum camphora</em>. The Rai community of this area is rich in knowledge of traditional medicines. Elderly persons are found to be more thinkable about the curative properties of plants, methods of preparation, and diseases diagnosis than young people. Ethnomedicinal knowledge is important for various diseases in the Rai community. Conservation and preserve these plants for future generation as well for the reasons of traditional knowledge is going extinct gradually. The main purpose of this research was to find out the medicinal plants used by the Rai community of Khoksik village in Ramprasadrai Rural Municipality-8 in Bhojpur district.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-07-27T14:30:39+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical characterization, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis (L.) extracts from the Tiaret region 2021-07-24T14:47:30+02:00 Rachida Bouteldja Radhouane Doucene Hebib Aggad Fatima Zohra Abdi Hamza Belkhodja Mustapha Abdali Khaled Zidane Siham Abaid <p>This work aims the valorization of a medicinal plant known by its traditional use, <em>Salvia officinalis</em> L. (Lamiaceae), by phytochemical characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of their extracts. The antioxidant activity was assessed by the DPPH method and the antibacterial potential was determined by the diffusion method. The quantitative determination revealed that the ethanolic extract has a content of 8.04% for polyphenolic content and 17.4 % for flavonoids. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of <em>S. officinalis </em>showed that the ethanolic extract of <em>S. officinalis</em> presented the higher antiradical effect manifested with IC<sub>50</sub> of 0.106±0.001 mg/ml. In addition, the antibacterial activity showed the strong capacity of <em>S. officinalis</em> methanolic extract to inhibit <em>B. subtilis</em>, <em>M. luteus</em>, <em>E. coli</em> and <em>S. aureus </em>with a diameter inhibition zone of 27.06±1.49; 15.43±2.23; 11.6±0.52 and 11.5±2.17 mm respectively. While the activity of the ethanolic extract was 26.62±2.97 mm against <em>B. subtilis</em>, 16.51±2.36 mm against <em>M. luteus</em>, 13.62±0.55 mm for <em>S. aureus</em>, <em>P. aeruginosa</em> (12.30±1.59 mm). The macrodilution method (MIC) showed a range of 625 to &gt;5000 µg/ml. The study of the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of extracts of <em>S. officinalis </em>suggested that this plant represented a natural source of bioactive molecules with very important biological activities.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-07-23T21:08:11+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Polyploidy promotes Harderian glands function under photo-oxidative stress in desert rodents 2021-07-13T14:32:08+02:00 Ouanassa Saadi-Brenkia Saida Lounis Nadia Hanniche <p>The presence of higher-ploidy cells within Harderian glands (HG) of desert rodents could be explained as an adaptive response to mitigate the effects of photo-oxidative stress. The principally products of HG are porphyrins, pigmentary accretions which interact with the intense luminosity of the Sahara and, then produce reactive oxygen species. Thus, the gland permanently suffers a physiological oxidative stress, with a great number of sings of degeneration, but without compromising the gland integrity. In this work, we used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphological features of cell ploidy in HG of three species of Gerbillidae. <em>Psamomys obesus</em>, <em>Meriones lybicus</em> and <em>Gerbillus tarabuli</em>. The results showed that, the glands of these species are large in size and lobulated. The glandular parenchyma consists of tubulo-alveoli surrounding a lumen into which the secretions are discharged. Frequently cells are binucleated and multinucleated. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of secretory cells with conspicuous nuclei and sometimes with micronuclei. Binuclear cells are created by acytokinetic mitosis. No cell membranes within the cytoplasm are observed. Our results provide morphological evidences, that HG of desert rodents employ polyploidy as cellular adaptive response to extreme arid environment.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-07-12T15:56:27+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tissue culture approaches to improve nutritional quality and stress response in peanut 2021-07-13T14:32:09+02:00 Amit Das Juran C. Goyali Aleya Ferdausi <p>Peanut, also known as groundnut (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em> L.), is an annual leguminous oil crop cultivated worldwide for food and fodder. Several stress factors critically diminish the productivity and nutritional quality of this protein-rich plant. <em>In vitro</em> cell and tissue culture systems have been used in many plant species to rapidly propagate large numbers of plants, create somaclonal variation, produce bioactive compounds, and enable genetic engineering. Tissue culture based mutagenesis and genetic engineering are particularly attractive for crop improvement. Tissue culture techniques have been implicated over the years to improve peanut, despite the general recalcitrant nature of this species to <em>in vitro</em> culture. In this manuscript, we review the progress that has been made on <em>in vitro</em> culture of peanut, and its application to improve nutritional quality and resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses in peanut.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-07-12T15:14:24+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Types of face coverings (masks) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) 2021-07-04T14:20:49+02:00 Summer Anjum Tajamul Islam <p>The ongoing pandemic has been increasing slowly and steadily across the world. The SARS-CoV-2 spreads through droplet disseminated from infected persons via coughing and/or sneezing onto the face, nasopharyngeal, and oropharyngeal mucosa. In order to prevent the transmission of coronavirus disease, WHO and public health officials made policies, advised the health workers and public to wear face coverings (masks). The nature of masks depends upon the source, material, structure and particulate efficacies. The main objective of this study is to provide information about efficacies of different types of masks used during COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-07-04T10:35:07+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus globulus 2021-06-26T14:12:13+02:00 Hamza Belkhodja Djilali Bouhadi Bouchra Medjadel Amel Brakna <p>This work was conducted as part of evaluation of the antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from a plant that belongs to the family of Myrtaceae: <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em>. The extraction of the essential oil was carried out by hydrodistillation and followed by extraction yield determination and physicochemical analysis. Then, the evaluation of the antioxidant activity was performed according to the method of DPPH free radical scavenging and the determination of total antioxidant capacity. The extraction of the essential oil gave a content of 0.41 ± 0.01%. The analytical study of the physicochemical properties of the essential oil of <em>E. globulus</em> showed that this plant presented an essential oil of acceptable quality and in conformity with the standard. The results of the evaluation of the antioxidant activity showed that this essential oil has interesting antiradical properties. It was manifested by a low value of IC<sub>50</sub> (0.017 mg /ml) compared to the standard antioxidant (ascorbic acid). It was noticed that the essential oil of <em>E. globulus </em>has an antioxidant capacity of the order of 19 ± 0.01 mg AAE/g. This result showed that the essential oil of <em>E. globulus</em> has a powerful antioxidant power by reducing phosphomolybdate. Thus, the essential oil of <em>E. globulus</em> appeared effective in reducing oxidative reactions.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-06-25T22:32:08+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Patterns of plant use in religious offerings of Odisha 2021-06-08T13:46:34+02:00 Sarat Kumar Sahu Taranisen Panda <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 200%;">The study was conducted within the course of two years (2016-2018) to explore the indigenous knowledge and traditional utilization pattern of plant species for the worship of the goddess Durga in coastal districts of Odisha, India. This article aims to document traditional methods of use of plant species which provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity. The information was gathered from literature as well as field-collected data and interviewed informants. Altogether 53 plant species belonging to 31 families and 49 genera are recorded. Roots, stems, leaves, inflorescence, seeds, and fruit are the most commonly used part for the worship of the goddess Durga. Most of the plants have curative properties. These plant species have been instrumental for indigenous people in providing substantial livelihood support. The present study may be used to motivate the general public to cultivate, preserve, and judicious utilization of such important plants for the conservation of nature and ecological research.</p> <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 200%;">&nbsp;<strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-06-07T17:22:42+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Isolation and characterization of rhizobia from the root nodule of some cultivated legume crops 2021-06-08T13:46:35+02:00 Som Prasad Paudyal Birendra Kunwar Niroj Paudel Bishnu Dev Das <p>Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as a result of mutual symbiosis between the rhizobia and the cultivated legume have a vital role to balance the nutrient paucity in the soil. Modern researches shows that the BNF can be the important factors regulating and maintaining the defendable agriculture and ensuring food security especially in the developing countries. The use of artificial nitrogen fertilizers to rise crop yield is an internment farming practice, despite its unfavorable effects and hazards to the environment and human population which can be substituted by rhizobial inoculants as a bio-fertilizers. The present study was aimed to isolate and characterize the <em>Rhizobium</em> from the nine different selected legumes. The <em>Rhizobium</em> bacterium was isolated from the nodules of the nine legume plants on YEMA medium which was found to show white translucent, circular convex colonies and characterized by the non-absorption of Congo red dye. The strains were found to be fast growing except for the rhizobial strains isolated from the Soybean and cowpeas (<em>Bradyrhizobium</em>) which were slow growing. The various biochemical tests of the isolated strains like catalase, bromothymol blue, Urea hydrolysis were favorable while Glucose-Peptone Agar (GPA), starch hydrolysis, Citrate utilization were found to be negative. For the ability to utilize the 2% NaCl, the strains TFR showed positive growth, the strains PSR, PhVR, VUR showed the poor tolerance while the rest of the strains showed no tolerance to the 2% NaCl.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-06-07T15:26:27+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative antimicrobial study of Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Lawsonia inermis L. against microorganisms from aqueous milieu 2021-05-08T13:13:10+02:00 Olubukola Olayemi Olusola-Makinde Michael Tosin Bayode <p>Limitations have been concurrent with the use of antibiotics in chemotherapy. Hence, antimicrobial potency of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> and <em>Lawsonia inermis</em> on some selected multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and fungi isolated from stream were compared. The phytochemical evaluation and antimicrobial susceptibility test of MAR bacteria and fungi was achieved via CLSI reference standard of perfloxacin (10 µg) and ketoconazole (150 mg/ml) with susceptibility index (&gt;14.00 mm and &gt;15.00 mm, respectively) as control for bacteria and fungi respectively. Saponin and steroids were present in both <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis </em>ethanol extracts but alkaloids were present in <em>V. amygdalina</em> and absent in <em>L. inermis</em> ethanol extracts. The ethanol extract of <em>L. inermis</em> had higher percentage recovery yield (16.13%) to that of <em>V. amygdalina</em> (10.78%). Synergistic effect of mixture of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis</em> ethanol extracts was displayed against <em>Alcaligenes faecalis</em> (29.00 mm) and <em>P. penneri</em> (20.00 mm). The MIC and MBC of <em>V. amygdalina</em> ethanol extract against <em>A. feacalis</em> was both 50 mg/ml. The combined mixture of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis </em>ethanol extracts showed 12.67 mm against <em>A. fumigatus.</em> This study revealed the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis</em> extracts in the treatment of related water-borne infections<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-05-07T15:54:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Use of statistical analysis to monitor novel coronavirus-19 cases in Jammu and Kashmir, India 2021-04-10T12:41:44+02:00 Digvijay Pandey Tajamul Islam Junaid A. Magray Aadil Gulzar Shabir A. Zargar <p>Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been increasing slowly and steadily in all the districts of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is essential for the government and health management system to monitor the districts affected due to COVID-19. The main objective of this study is to ascertain and categorize the COVID-19 affected districts into real clusters based on similarities within a cluster and differences among clusters in order to imply standard operating procedures (SOPs) policies, decisions, medical facilities, etc. could be improved for reducing the risk of infection and death and optimize the deployment of resources for preventing subsequent outbreaks.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-04-09T21:53:02+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fumigant toxicity and repellency of citronella grass essential oil (Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle) to German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) 2021-04-08T12:39:25+02:00 Robby Jannatan Resti Rahayu <p>Citronella grass (<em>Cymbopogon nardus</em> (L.) Rendle) is a tropical plant that can develop as an insect pest fumigant and repellent, especially for the control of the populations of German cockroaches (<em>Blattella germanica</em> L.). The research aims to investigate the fumigation toxicity and repellency of citronella grass essential oil against German cockroach males and nymphs. Fumigation toxicity and repellency tests are the protocol that uses in the present research. The field populations of cockroaches collected in Indonesia from several locations. The essential oil of citronella grass is not fumigant. In contrast, the citronella grass essential oil effectively repels the cockroach, and the repellency ranges from 65.72–100.00% at 1 hour and still effective after 24 hours. The citronella grass essential oil can develop as a repellent product than as a fumigant to the German cockroach pest.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-04-07T20:06:40+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determination of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and total antioxidant capacity in some endemic Sideritis L. (Lamiaceae) species grown in Turkey 2021-04-03T12:29:38+02:00 Emre Sevindik İsmail Gübeş Zehra Tuğba Murathan Gülendam Tümen <p>In this study, total phenolic, total flavonoid and antioxidant activities of the some endemic species <em>Sideritis rubriflora</em> Hub.-Mor.<em>, Sideritis libanotica</em> Labill. subsp<em>. violascens</em> (P.H.Davis) P.H.Davis<em>, Sideritis erythrantha</em> Boıss. Et Heldr. Apus Bentham var. <em>cedretorum</em> P.H.Davis<em>, Sideritis congesta</em> P. H. Davis Et Hub.-Mor.<em>, Sideritis brevidens</em> P.H.Davis and<em> Sideritis vuralii</em> H. Duman Et Başer, which were collected from Anamur district of Mersin province in Turkey, were analyzed. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity (DPPH), (ABTS), (FRAP) of the ground surface parts were evaluated. As a result of the study, the highest TPC value was observed in <em>S. erythrantha</em> subsp. <em>c</em><em>edretorum </em>and<em> S. rubriflora </em>extracts as being 366.9 and 328.3 mg/g DW, respectively; the highest TFC value was observed in <em>S. rubriflora </em>extract as being 155.7 mg/g; the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in <em>S. congesta</em> and <em>S. brevidens</em> extracts as being 39.1% and 38.9%, respectively; the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity was observed in <em>S. erythrantha</em> subsp. <em>cedretorum</em> and <em>S. rubriflora </em>extracts as being 54.9% and 51.9%, respectively; the highest FRAP value was observed in <em>S. libanotica </em>subsp<em>. violascens </em>extract as being 1500.2 µmol/g. In the light of the acquired findings, it is suggested that <em>Sideritis</em> species used in the study can be used as a possible natural source in the pharmaceutical and food industries<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-04-02T15:19:26+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of early onset of Alzheimer's disease genes: disease causing and risk factors 2021-03-28T12:27:05+02:00 Prama Pandey Poonam Sharma <p>Alzheimer's disease is on the rise around the globe and is ranked sixth in the United States as the leading cause of death. It is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the main causes of dementia. It is often characterized by symptoms such as lack of memory, agitation, restlessness, changes in personality, inability to perform everyday tasks, and impairment of speech. There are two forms of Alzheimer's disease: early onset of Alzheimer's disease occurring before 65 years of age, manifesting in 5-10% of the population, and late-onset of Alzheimer's disease manifesting after 65 years of age. In this study, the role of single nucleotide polymorphism in Alzheimer's disease using genome-wide association studies was investigated. Further, mutations underlying early onset of Alzheimer's disease were analyzed and it was found that mutations in the six genes <em>APP</em>, <em>PSEN1</em>, <em>PSEN2</em>, <em>MAPT</em>, <em>GRN</em> and <em>PRNP</em> resulted in the structural and functional protein modifications. These altered amino acids in early onset of Alzheimer's disease contribute to its pathogenesis. A single change in these genes is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and might lead to early onset of Alzheimer's disease, however sporadic cases have also been identified<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-03-27T18:14:40+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact on the productivity of preparation on rhizobial inoculant carriers 2021-03-27T12:25:56+01:00 Som Prasad Paudyal Bishnu Dev Das Vivek Ranjan Paudel Niroj Paudel <p>Selection of a suitable carrier material for rhizobial inoculants is essential for biofertilizers production. Locally available wastes or by-products as carrier material will increase the cost effectiveness of the inoculants preparation. Here, were evaluated four such waste materials from local ground <em>viz.</em> charcoal, saw dust, garden soil and sugarcane bagasse with carrier based inoculums (10<sup>8</sup> viable cells/ml) and kept at room temperature (30 ± 2<sup>0</sup>C). The colony forming unit (CFU) count of each strain in different carriers was monitored every month. The charcoal, garden soil and saw dust resulted to allow a better survival of the inoculums. The viable counts in charcoal, soil, saw dust and sugarcane bagasse after 240 days of storage was recorded as 10<sup>7</sup>, 10<sup>6</sup>, 10<sup>5</sup> and 10<sup>3</sup> for MPR<sub>8</sub> and 10<sup>7</sup>, 10<sup>5</sup>, 10<sup>5</sup> and 10<sup>3</sup> for TFR<sub>3</sub> strains respectively. The effects of storage of carrier on plant productivity showed better plant biomass accumulation and nodulation in cases of charcoal, sawdust and garden soil. However it was insignificant with the sugarcane bagasse based inoculants.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-03-27T00:20:13+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antimicrobial activity of dried fig (Ficus carica L.) extracts from the region of Mascara (Western Algeria) on Enterobacter cloacae identified by MALDI-TOF/MS 2021-03-27T12:25:57+01:00 Benmaghnia Souhila Boukhannoufa Asma Meddah Boumediene Tir-Touil Aicha <p><em>Enterobacter cloacae</em> is currently known as a urinary tract infection agent, especially in hospitals recognized by its resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporin’s, which makes it a target for different works in order to find natural and definitive means of fight and treatment. Their limited biochemical reactivity and their different morphotypes is a real obstacle to their identification by conventional phenotypic means. 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequencing is highly successful for bacterial identification. However, in recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time in flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a very valid technique for the identification and diagnosis of microorganisms. Our study aims to identify three bacteria belonging to the <em>Enterobacter cloacae</em> species isolated from various environments by the MALDI-TOF/MS method and then to study their antimicrobial activity against some extracts of dried figs of <em>Ficus carica</em> fruits grown in the mascara region (western Algeria). The determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) shows a significant inhibition of the activity of <em>E. cloacae</em> by the methanolic extract of El-Keurt variety at 2.34 mg/ml of extract. This study seems to give good guidance for the use of dried figs against <em>Enterobacter</em> infections.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-03-26T22:59:37+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The antibiotic resistance study of Enterobacteriaceae, Yersiniaceae and Morganellaceae bacteria isolated from broilers (outside veterinary control) in western Algeria 2021-03-09T12:06:28+01:00 Merazi Yahya Kheira Hammadi Fedoul Firdaous Faiza <p>In the context of our study of the animal side, especially in broiler chickens, the breeding of the latter requires the use of antibiotics for treatment and prophylaxis purpose; to give a closer look at the antibiotic resistance status of broiler chickens in Western Algeria. The bacteria <em>Enterobacter</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Proteus</em>, <em>Salmonella</em>, <em>Serratia</em> were present and showed a high multidrug-resistance at a percentage of 67.14%, 63.64%, 60%, 57.27%, 50% respectively. The forty-nine bacteria identified belong to different families of Enterobacteriaceae, Yersiniaceae and Morganellaceae have shown an overall resistance of 61.22%. Presented resistance to cefazolin 91.84%, flumequine 89.80%, neomycin 83.67%, ceftiofur 79.59%, ampicillin 73.47%, trimethoprim 73.47%, aztreonam 57.14%, colistin 48.98 %, nadilixic acid 32.65%, streptomycin 30.61%, gentamicin 12.24%. To study the sensitivity, critical values to antibiotics a statistical Student's t-test was used. All bacteria were significantly resistant (P ≤ 0.05) to the following antibiotics: flumequine, neomycin, cefazolin, trimethoprim, ampicillin, and ceftiofur. However, a low sensitivity was also noted to gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin (P ≤ 0.05). Some isolated bacteria were resistant to many antibiotics, with resistance from 3 to 10 antibiotics simultaneously. The highest percentage of all bacteria (28.57%) were resistant to 8 antibiotics, while the lowest percentage of all bacteria (2.04%) were resistant to 3 and 10 antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-03-08T21:37:25+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study of aquatic biodiversity and correlation with physical parameters of Jalangi river 2021-02-26T11:50:54+01:00 Monojit Ray Sandip Pal <p>The present study is concerned to assess the present status of aquatic biodiversity and its correlation with few physical parameters of river Jalangi. The study shows more than 35 species of freshwater fishes, eight species of zooplanktons, four species of dragonflies and two species of damselflies, few species of mollusks, which reflects that the river Janangi is full of diversity with respect to flora and fauna. The river is full of eel grass. River Jalangi is also a habitat of water striders, few crab species and aquatic snakes. In few areas, pollution may affect the present ecological status of Jalangi River in near future. This preliminary study identifies the overall biodiversity status of Jalangi. However, more work in this direction is required to make complete database on floral and faunal diversity of this river.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-02-07T21:39:04+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials, total phenolic contents of some herbal waters 2021-02-26T11:50:55+01:00 Sinem Aydin Ayşegül Caniklioğlu <p>The aim of the actual study is to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials, total phenolic contents of thyme (<em>Thymus</em> sp.), myrtle (<em>Myrtus communis</em> L.), eucalyptus (<em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> L.) and rosemary herbal waters (<em>Rosmarinus officinalis</em> L.). They were bought a retailer in Giresun. In the studies, it was determined that only thyme water exhibited antimicrobial activity in all herbal waters. Streptomycine, tetracycline and nystatin which were synthetic antimicrobials demonstrated higher activity than studied herbal waters. Moreover; total flavonoid contents of the tested waters ranges from 50.19±0.0038 µL CE/mL to 126.15±0.004 µL CE/mL. The highest and the lowest total phenolic contents were detected in the thyme water and the eucalyptus water as 688.18±0.009 µL GAE/mL and 24.54±0.0008 µL GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the herbal waters exhibited a dose dependent manner and increased with increasing conentrations. As a result of this study, it was concluded that thyme water could be an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents and thyme water, myrtle water, eucalyptus water and rosemary waters might be an alternative to synthetic antioxidative agents. Hence, further and detailed investigations are needed to determine active constituents in the herbal waters.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-02-04T15:31:51+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Detarium microcarpum extracts and synergistic effect of combine extract and ivermectin against Caenorhabditis elegans 2021-02-26T11:50:55+01:00 Haladu Ali Gagman Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzaudin Nik Him Bashir Mohammed Abubakar Hamdan Ahmad <p>This work tested the efficacy of crude methanol and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of <em>Detarium microcarpum </em>and the effect of combined extract and ivermectin<em> in vitro</em> against the motility of <em>C. elegans</em> Bristol N2 and <em>C. elegans</em> DA1316 L4 larvae. Series of concentrations (0.2, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/ml) of aqueous and methanolic extracts of <em>D. microcarpum</em> was used for the test. Counting of the motile larvae was carried out after 24 hours and 48 hours. A further test was carried out using a combination of plant extract and ivermectin. Both the aqueous and the methanolic extracts exhibited good anthelmintic activity in the inhibition of larval motility of<em> C. elegans</em> Bristol N2 as well of<em> C. elegans </em>DA1316 with a significant difference at P &lt; 0.05 when compared to the negative control. However, a significant difference occurred between treatment with aqueous and methanolic extract at P &lt; 0.05. The performance of the extracts was concentration and time-dependent. A combination of plant extract and ivermectin prove more potent than the pure extract against both strains of <em>C. elegans.</em> These extracts may be used to control parasitic nematodes including ivermectin resistant type. Treatment using combined plant anthelmintic and synthetic drugs should be encouraged as the combination was more promising. Further studies should be carried on the identification of active compounds in the extracts and studying the mode of action of the drugs on the nematodes and <em>in vivo</em> tests of the extract.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-02-01T22:02:53+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##