Profile of major and emerging mycotoxins in sesame and soybean grains in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

  • Stephen O. Fapohunda Department of Microbiology, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Toba S. Anjorin Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja, PMB117, Abuja, Nigeria
  • Michael Sulyok Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenzstr, 20, A-3430 Tulln, Austria
  • Rudolf Krska Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenzstr, 20, A-3430 Tulln, Austria
Keywords: Emerging mycotoxins, Nigeria, Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, Regulated mycotoxins, Sesame, Soybean


The spectrum of major and emerging mycotoxins in sesame and soybean grains from the six zones of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria was determined using Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 47 samples (24 sesame and 23 soybean were collected from farmers’ stores. Seven regulated mycotoxins in sesame and five in soybean including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) were detected. However, concentrations were generally lower than regulatory limits set in the EU for raw grains with the exception of ochratoxin A (OTA) exhibiting a maximum concentration level of 23.1 µg kg-1 in one of the soybean samples. This is the first report concerning the contamination of sesame and soybean in Abuja, FCT-Nigeria with the emerging mycotoxins addressed by recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion papers totalling 10 in number. These include beauvericin (BEA), moniliformin (MON), sterigmatocystin (STE), altertoxin-I (ATX-I), alternariol (AOH), alternariol methylether (AME) though at relatively low µg kg-1 range. This preliminary data indicate that sesame and soybean might be relatively safe commodities in view of the profile of mycotoxins.



Download data is not yet available.


1. Wu F, Stacy SL, Kensler TW. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: Are regulatory standards adequately protective? Toxicol Sci. 2013; 35: 251-259.

2. Ayeni A. Extension education strategy for minimizing aflatoxin impact on sub-Saharan African agriculture and food systems. World Mycotox J. 2014; 8(2): 253-257.

3. Ezekiel CN, Sulyok M, Warth B, Krska R. Multi-microbial metabolites in fonio millet (acha) and sesame seeds in Plateau State, Nigeria. Eur Food Res Technol. 2012; 235(2): 285-293.

4. Barros G, Zanon MS, Palazzini JM, Haidukowskio M, Pascale M, Chulze S. Trichothecenes and zearalenone production by Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum species isolated from Argentinean soybean. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2012; 29(9): 1436-1442.

5. Garrido CE, Gonmzalez HH, Salas MP, Resnik SL, Pacin AM. Mycoflora and mycotoxin contamination of Roundup Ready soyabean harvested in the Pampean Region, Argentina. Mycotox Res. 2013; 29(3): 147-157.

6. Ivic D, Domijan AM, Peraica M, Milicevic T, Cvjetkovic B. Fusariun spp. contamination of wheat, wheat, soyabean and pea grain in Croatia. Food Microbiol. 2009; 60(4): 435-442.

7. Garcia D, Barros G, Chulze S, Ramos AJ, Sanchis V, Marin S. Impact of cycling temperature on Fusarium verticilloides and Fusarium graminearum growth and mycotoxins productionin soybean. J Sci Food Agric. 2012; 92(15): 2952-2959.

8. Creppy EE, Chiarappa P, Bandrimont I, Borraci P, Moukha S, Carratu MR. Synergistic effects of fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A: are in vitro cytotoxicity data predictive of in vivo acute toxicity? Toxicology. 2004; 201(1-3): 11.

9. Klaric MS, Rasic D, Peraica M. Deleterious effects of mycotoxin combinations involving ochratoxin A. Toxins (Basel). 2013; 5(11): 1965-1987.

10. Bondy GS, Pestka JJ. Immunomodulation by fungal toxins. J Toxicol Environ Health. 2000; 3(2): 109-143.

11. Koppen R, Koch M, Siegel D, Merkel S, Maul R, Nehls I. Determination of mycotoxins in foods: current state of analytical methods and limitations. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010; 86: 1595-1612.

12. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA website, 2012). Annual report. Accessed at on 12/03/2018.

13. Sulyok M, Krska R, Schuhmacher R. Application of an LC-MS/MS based multi-mycotoxin method for the semi-quantitative determination of mycotoxins occurring in different types of food infected by moulds. Food Chem. 2010; 119: 408-416.

14. Zinedine A, Meca G, Manes J, Font G. Further data on the occurrence of Fusarium emerging mycotoxins enniatins (A, A1, B, B1), fusaproliferin and beauvericin in raw cereals commercialized in Morocco. Food Control. 2011; 22: 1-5.

15. Sifou A, Meca G, Serrano AB, Mahnine N, El Abidi A, Manes J, et al. First report on the presence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins (A, A1, B, B1), beauvericin and fusaproliferin in rice on the Moroccan retail markets. Food Control. 2011; 22: 1826-1830.

16. Jestoi M, Rokka MY, Li Mattila T, Parikka P, Rizzo A, Peltonen K. Presence and concentrations of the Fusarium related mycotoxins beauvericin, enniatins and moniliformin in Finnish grain samples. Food Addit Contam. 2004; 21: 1794-1821.

17. Mahnine N, Meca G, El Abdi A, Fekhaouui M, Saoiabi A, Font G, et al. Further data on the levels of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins (A, A1, B, B1), beauvericin and fusaproliferin in breakfast and infant cereals from Morocco. Food Chem. 201; 124: 481-485.

18. Jestoi M. Emerging fusarium-mycotoxins fusaproliferin, beauvericin, enniatins, and moniliformin: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2008; 248(1): 21-49.

19. Ezekiel CN, Bandyopadhyay R, Sulyok M, Warth B, Krska R. Fungal and bacterial metabolites in commercial poultry feed from Nigeria. Food Addit Contam. 2012; 29 (8): 1288-1299.

20. Sulyok M, Krska R, Schuhmacher R. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric multi-mycotoxin method for the quantification of 87 analytes and its application to semi-quantitative screening of moldy food samples. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007; 389: 1505-1523.

21. Malachova A, Sulyok M, Beltrain E, Berthiller F, Krska R. Optimization and validation of a quantitative liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometric method covering 295 bacterial and fungal metabolites including all relevant mycotoxins in four model food matrices. J Chrom A. 2014; 1362: 145-156.

22. Tang YY, Lin HY, Chen YC. Development of a quantitative multi-mycotoxin method in rice, maize, wheat and peanut using UPLC-MS/MS. Food Anal Methods. 2013; 6: 727-736.

23. Kovalski P, Kos G, Nahrer K, Schwab C, Jenkins T, Schatzmayr G, et al. Co-occurrence of regulated, masked and emerging mycotoxins and secondary metabolites in finished feed and maize - an extensive survey. Toxins. 2016; 8(12): 363-373.

24. Warth B, Parich A, Atehnkeng J, Bandyopadhyay R, Schumacher R, Sulyok M, Krska R. Quantitation of mycotoxins in food and feed from Burkina Faso and Mozambique using a modern LC-MS/MS multitoxin method. J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 60: 9352-9363.

25. Silva LJG, Lino CM, Pena A, Molto JC. Occurrence of fumonisins B1 and B2 in Portuguese maize and maize-based foods intended for human consumption. Food Addit Contam. 2007; 24(4): 381-390.

26. Abdua-Salaam R, Fanelli F, Atanda O, Sulyok M, Cozzi G, Bavavo S. Fungal and bacterial metabolites associated with natural contamination of locally processed rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Nigeria. Food Addit Contam. 2015; 32(6): 950-959.

27. Souza MLM, Sulyok M, Freitas-Silva SS, Costa C, Brabet M, Machnski J, et al. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins in maize and poultry feeds from Brazil by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Sci World J. 2013; 1: 1-9.

28. Kayode OF, Sulyok M, Fapohunda SO, Ezekiel CN, Krska R, Oguntona CRB. Mycotoxins and fungal metabolites in groundnut - and maize-based snacks from Nigeria. Food Addit Contam. 2013; 6(4): 294-300.

29. Adetunji M, Atanda O, Ezekiel CN, Sulyok M, Warth B, Beeltiran E, et al. Fungal and bacterial metabolites of stored maize (Zea mays L.) from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Mycot Res. 2014; 30(2): 89-102.

30. Shephard GS, Burger HM, Gambacorta L, Krska R, Powers SP, Rheeder JP, et al. Mycological analysis and multimycotoxins in maize from rural subsistence farmers in the former Transkei, South Africa. J Agric Food Chem. 2013; 61(34): 8232-8240.

31. Anjorin TS. Occurrence of mycotoxins in maize and status of their management by the farmers and marketers in Abuja. J Biol Agric Health. 2017; 7(12): 63-69.

32. Blesa J, Marin R, Lino CM, Manes J. Evaluation of enniatins A, A1, B, B1 and beauvericin in Portuguese cereal-based foods. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2012; 29: 1727-1735.

33. Xu L, Wang J, Zhao J, Li P, Shan T, Wang J, et al. Beauvericin from the endophytic fungus, Fusarium redolens, isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis and its antibacterial activity. Nat Prod Commun. 2010; 5: 811-814.

34. Moretti A, Mule G, Ritieni A, Logrieco A. Further data on the production of beauvericin, enniatins and fusaproliferin and toxicity to Artemia salina by Fusarium species of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007; 118: 158-163.

35. Thrane U, Adler A, Clasen PE, Galvano F, Langseth W, Lew H, et al. Diversity in metabolite production by Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae, and Fusarium sporotrichioides. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004; 95: 257-266.

36. Celik M, Aksoy H, Yilmaz S. Evaluation of beauvericin genotoxicity with the chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and micronucleus assays. Ecotox Environ Safety. 2010; 73: 1553-1557.

37. Nazari F, Sulyok M, Kobarfard F, Yazzdanpanah H, Krska R. Evaluation of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, enniatins, fusaproliferin and moniliformin in domestic rice in Iran. Iran J Pharm Res. 2015; 14(2): 505-512.

38. Gutema T, Munimbazi C, Bullerman LB. Occurrence of fumonisins and moniliformin in corn and corn-based food products of US origin. J Food Prot. 2000; 63: 1732-1737.

39. Guerre P. Ergot alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi of the genus Epichloë. Toxins. 2015; S7(3): 773-790.

40. Gruber-Dorninger C, Novak NV, Berthiller F. Emerging mycotoxins: beyond traditionally determined food contaminants. J Agric Food Chem. 2016; 5(33): 7052-7070.
How to Cite
Fapohunda, S.; Anjorin, T.; Sulyok, M.; Krska, R. Profile of Major and Emerging Mycotoxins in Sesame and Soybean Grains in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. European Journal of Biological Research 2018, 8, 121-130.
Research Articles